One of the key areas to build security capacity in Iraq is the development, training, equipping, and sustaining of the police forces under the Ministry of Interior. The mission of the Ministry of Interior is to "provide the Iraqi citizens with a free and peaceful society through its security forces. The Ministry of Interior forces arrest people who threaten the stability and security of Iraq in the civil sector, combat terrorism and continues to improve its forces to ensure order throughout Iraq. The Ministry of Interior is here to serve the public of Iraq."
As part of the Ministry of Interior, the Iraqi Police Services (IPS) have the mission to "serve the public by providing law enforcement, public safety and internal security. The IPS Directorate has its own unique tasks and duties. The IPS first priority is to protect its citizens from terrorists, criminals and all those who seek to harm to the people of Iraq. The IPS protects people, their freedoms, public & private wealth as well as protect its citizens from any hazards and persons which compromise their safety. The IPS work to curb crime by implementing laws, arresting criminals who violate those laws and keeping public order."
The Multi-National Security Transition Command -- Iraq (MNSTC-I) has the mission "to assist the Iraqi Government in the development, organization, training, equipping, and sustaining of Iraqi Security Forces and Ministries capable of defeating terrorism and providing a stable environment where individual freedom, the rule of law, and free market economy can evolve and, in time, will contribute to Regional Security in the Gulf Region." To implement this mission, there are three major focus areas -- ministerial level capacity for the Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Interior, military forces, and police forces.
Assisting in the development of police forces also requires a "systems of systems" approach to build an enduring capability for the IPS. This enduring capability requires an "enterprise mindset" to manage those forces and capabilities through the entire spectrum of patrolling, investigations, forensics, apprehension, incarceration, adjudication, logistics, and facilities. Proper stewardship of the police forces also requires an emphasis on leader development and a robust internal affairs capability to create a professional police force in Iraq.
Police Forces "Star Chart"
The growth of the IPS in the past four years has been enormous -- from a previous force of approximately 60,000 to a force of over 250,000. This rapid growth has largely coincided with the "surge" of forces and the emphasis on establishing security throughout the country. In addition to the quantitative growth in the IPS, there have been significant qualitative changes in the last year -- these include the adoption of a Police Code of Ethics, strengthening of the Internal Affairs function to root out corruption, and a shift from a "confessional system" to an investigative and evidentiary system for the prosecution of crimes. As a result, the police forces "star chart" includes important enablers such as forensics and internal affairs to ensure the appropriate emphasis on professionalism in the Iraqi Police Services.
All of this reform and rapid growth within the Iraqi Police Forces is taking place in the context of the current counterinsurgency (COIN) fight, which impacts the prioritization of effort. The immediate requirement is to create an Iraqi Police Force that is "sufficiently trained and sufficiently led" to have adequate numbers of forces to deal with the COIN fight -- while enabling the IPS to develop along a trajectory that ensures a professional police force for the long term, focused on the rule of law and steady state security assurance. The COIN fight must be won to ensure this transition; nonetheless the development and investment for the police enterprise must be informed by future requirements of the "Rule of Law Police Force."
Managing Current and Future Requirements
The "systems of systems" or enterprise approach represents the approach to developing a professional Iraqi Police Services that can address the challenges of today as well as tomorrow. The approach of ensuring security while transitioning is designed to provide security to the people of Iraq as an enduring capability.
Dr. Jack D. Kem is the Chief of the Combined Arms Center (CAC) Commander's Initiatives Group (CIG), Fort Leavenworth, KS. As the CIG Chief, Dr. Kem assists the CAC Commander by developing ideas and initiatives, conducting strategic planning, and conducting independent and unbiased analysis of the CAC Commander' areas of interest. Dr. Kem also hold a concurrent appointment as a Supervisory Professor in the Department of Joint, Interagency, and Multinational Operations in the US Army Command and General Staff College. Dr. Kem is currently on temporary assignment with MNSTC-I.