The Appearance of Three New Radical Islamist English-Language Online Magazines: Al Risalah, One Ummah & Voice of Hind
Robert J. Bunker and Pamela Ligouri Bunker
This research note provides an update concerning new radical Islamist English-language online magazines appearing since the ebook publication of The Islamic State English-Language Online Magazine Rumiyah (Rome). Within that work, the following five new magazine issues (for previously identified magazines) concerning the time period January 2017-June 2018 were identified:
- Al Risalah (No. 4); titled: “The Balanced Nation.” January 2017, published by al-Nusrah Front
- Inspire (No. 17); titled: “Train Derail Operations.” July 2017, published by al-Qaeda
- Gaidi Mtaani (Iss. 9); titled: “Ole! Kwa Wanazuoni waovu.” September 2017, published by al Shabaab
- Sunnat E Khola (aka Sunnat Khawlah; Sunnat e Khaula (SK) (Vol. 2); titled “Eid Ul Adha Special.” October 2017, published by Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan
- Al-Ḥaqiqah (Iss. 4, Special Edition); titled “7 Years of Jihad in Syria.” June 2018, published by an al-Qaeda affiliate (Syria)
Since July 2018 to the present, three new radical Islamist English-language online magazines have appeared— Al Rishalah with the publication of two issues in January and February 2019, One Ummah with the publication of one issuein mid September 2019 and Voice of Hind with the publication of two issues in late February and late March 2020. It should be noted that no new issues of pre-existing magazines identified in our earlier works were published during this time span. A general overview of these three new magazines and the contents of their issues follow:
[Partial Image of the Caravan of Martyrs of Jundul Khilafah Kashmir in the Foreword]
Issue 2 Al Risalah, p. 29. [Image of an Islamic State Fighter—Make Hijrah Today!]
This newer, yet little noticed, magazine was published by the Al Burhan Media Center Kashmir by the Jundul Khilafah Kashmir (JKK)—as opposed to the earlier magazine of the same name published by the al-Nusrah Front out of Syria. The earlier al-Nusrah Front magazine saw four issues appearing between July 2015 and January 2017. The Jundul Khilafah Kashmir is a pro-Islamic State terrorist group in constrast to the al-Nusrah Front which is a terrorist group linked to al-Qaeda. The term ‘al Risalah’ refers to ‘the message’ in Arabic, hence the reason why both competing terrorist networks would utilize the same name for their online English magazines. The readership of the magazine is meant to be Muslims living in Islamic State Jammu & Kashmir (ISJK). The newer magazine saw the distribution of two successive issues in January and February 2019 and then abruptly ceased publication. No mention of Arabic or other language versions of the magazine has been noted. The content of the magazine issues and their context remains a bit of an enigma for many as they are very few public mentions of it. Similarly, much less analysis of its issues (unlike the two other new magazines covered in this note) has been undertaken.
Listen and Obey. Al Risalah (Jundul Khilafah Kashmir; Pro-Islamic State).
December 2018 to January 2019 (1440 Rabi’ al-Thani). Issue 1, 23 pp. (Approx.).
Table of Contents
- 03 Foreword
- 05 Beware of Them
- 06 Apostasy of Syed Ali Shah Geelani and Others
- 14 From the Cunningness of Abu Jahl to the Plea of a Mother – Part I
- 17 The Supplication of a Mother
- 18 The Matchless Resolve and Patience of the Sahabiyaat in the Battle at Uhud
- 19 Khansa bint Amr Offered a Spectacular Sacrifice in the Day of the Battle of Qadisiyah
- 23 The Mimber Belongs to the Muwahideen Not Murtadeen / Revivers of Sunnah
Only fragmentary sections were available for review concerning the first issue of Al Risalah. As a result, interpretive analysis has been required to characterize some of its contents. Its cover contains a picture of a mujahid holding an Islamic State flag with the issue title ‘Listen and Obey’ referring to the primacy of the authority of God as interpreted by that terrorist organization. The issue is then divided into eight essays and articles. Following the foreword, which discusses the martyrdom of the fighters of Jundul Khilafah Kashmir, the magazine impunes the character of Syed Ali Shah Geelani—a popular Indian political leader in Kashmir and thus a threat to the Islamic State—by characterizing him as an apostate. A multi-part feature article, “From the Cunningness of Abu Jahl to the Plea of a Mother – Part I” is then provided. It begins by focusing on Islam’s origins and the threats it initially faced from Abu Jahl (the father of ignorance) a staunch opponent of Muhammud. A short piece on the Battle at Uhud (in 624) between the early Muslims and the pagan Meccans and the exploits of the Sahabiyaat (female companions of the prophet) is then highlighted. The Battle of Qadisiyah (in 636) between the Muslims and the Sasanians is then examined along in another essay with the noble sacrifice of Khansa bint Amr whose four sons were martyred while defending the faith. Finally in the last essay—which has two titles listed in the table of contents—compares muwahideen (holy warriors) to murtadeen (apostates) and considers the former the revivers of the path to righteousness set forth by the prophet.
The Lone Wolves . Al Risalah (Jundul Khilafah Kashmir; Pro-Islamic State).
February to March 2019 (1440 Jumada Al-Akhirah). Issue 2, 29 pp.
Table of Contents
- 03 Foreword
- 05 Living Longer is Not the Aim, Dying Upon Tawheed Is
- 06 And We Have Come to Destory Kufr in All Its Forms
- 07 Apostasy of Jammu and Kahmir Police
- 16 In the Words of a Mujahid from Jundul Khilafah Kashmir: Exclusive Interview
- 20 From the Cunningness of Abu Jahl to the Plea of a Mother – Part II
- 21 Story of Umm Ibrahim and Her Son
- 24 The Individual Obligation
- 25 The Story of Kab Bin Malik
The second issue of the magazine sports the cover image of a fighter—a lone wolf—throwing the tawheed (oneness) symbol represented by that of a raised index finger. The moderately sized issue contains nine essays and articles within it. The foreword discusses Muhammad’s discrediting “the superstitious practices of idolatry” of the pre-Islamists and how he was charged with witchcraft by the Meccans yet was able to overcome it with the grace (and helpful plotting) of Allah. The foreword eventually goes on to link the oppressed Muslims in Kashmir with the ongoing struggle of Jihad and how a ‘terrible battle of the future’ is taking place in the Indo-Pak Subcontinent. The first essay then discusses how it is better for Muslims to die for tawheed than live a long life, seeking to reinforce the nobility of martyrdom. This is followed by a piece that advocates the destruction of the kufr (disbeliever) who engages in sorcery—which is identified as a form of apostasy.
Attention in the issue is then turned to the police forces of Jammu and Kashmir, specifically its Muslim members who are working with the Indian authorities (the Kufr) against fellow Muslims. Their transgressions include making war on shariah, being protectors of the kufr, aiding the taghut (tyrants), and taking disbelievers as protectors. An exclusive interview with an active mujahid of Jundul Khilafah Kashmir using a Q&A format is next provided. The feature article “From the Cunningness of Abu Jahl to the Plea of a Mother – Part II” continues from the first issue which includes the three following essays listed in the table of contents as components of it. This section of the issue can be viewed as undertaking Salafi-jihadi indoctrination (and radicalization) of the readership by means of providing historical and spiritual narratives, including one story from the 10th century.
Issue 1 One Ummah, p. 2. [Screen Shot of an Image in the Table of Contents ]
The title of this new magazine, One Ummah (aka Majallah Ummah Wahida), published by al-Qaeda means ‘one people’ referring to the ummah (umma)—the people or community of Muslims throughout the world. More specifically, it highlights Sunni adherents who are on the true path as opposed to Shia adherents who are said to have lost their way as part of the 7th century schism within Islam after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. According to the Counter Extremism Project:
On September 11, al-Qaeda released the first English language edition of their magazine One Ummah. An Arabic version of the magazine was originally released in April 2019. One Ummah has several lengthy articles on current events, history, economics, and personal stories….
“One Ummah is notable as an English language al Qaeda magazine. This issue heavily features the group’s leader, Ayman al-Zawahiri, who has led al-Qaeda since 2011. Although Zawahiri has been in hiding since December 2001, he frequently makes his presence known in the terror group’s propaganda….” said CEP researcher Joshua Fisher-Birch.
One Ummah calls for violence against the U.S. and anyone who defames Islam…
A second edition of One Ummah was released in Arabic in August 2019 but no translation to English has since been made, making this a single issue magazine to date. The Arabic edition of One Ummah itself has not seen a third issue published which suggests that this magazine may have met its demise which is not uncommon for such media offerings, which are difficult for beleaguered terrorist entities to sustain.
No Issue Title . One Ummah (al-Qaeda).
September 2019. Issue 01, 50 pp.
Table of Contents
- 01 The Mujahideen of the Ummah Waging the Jihad of the Ummah
- 03 One Ummah Aims and Objectives
- 11 No Word of Welcome for Them
- 19 The Revivers: Ibn Laden and Azzam: Rivals or Opposites?!
- 37 The Abysmal State of the American Economy
One Ummah was released on the 18th anniversary of the 9/11 attack and is considered an al-Qaeda central publication tied directly to its leader Ayman al-Zawahiri who has been in hiding for almost two decades. The magazine cover image is that of the globe with the Muslim regions of the world highlighted in green. The darker the color of green, the higher the percentage of Muslims living in a specific country. The issue begins with a statement by Ayman al-Zawahiri concerning God’s holy warriors and their struggle on behalf of the people in fighting the allies of Satan. As he states, “Jihad is one of several methods to call people to Allah and spread the message of His Oneness so that there is no persecution in the world.” Eighteen stated aims and objectives of the magazine are listed corresponding to the 18thanniversary of 9/11. At their essence, they are meant to “achieve a strong unity of ranks among the sons of a single Ummah on the basis of the Word of Tauheed [oneness or monotheism].” The basis of this unity will come from jihad derived from its older ‘holy war’ articulation directed at the ‘contemporary Zionist-Crusader hegemony’ that has essentially enslaved the Ummah.
The article entitled “No Word of Welcome for Them” lambasts Ibn Zaid and Ibn Salman, representing Saudi Arabia, for supporting the Zio-Crusader project by legitimizing Christianity with their interactions with the West and allowing the Pope and key figures of the Orthodox Church to visit their country. Another piece looks at Ibn Laden and Azzam, comparing and contrasting them as both rivals and opposites. A focal point within the issue is al-Qaeda’s strategic economic warfare strategy directed at the United States. This is seen with an article that discusses America’s abysmal economic state due to its national debt and its then current artificial improvement. A major economic crisis triggered by a 9/11 magnitude event is hoped for which it proposes brothers with economic and finance backgrounds could trigger. Interestingly, this was a planned follow on topic that was to be explored for the 2nd issue which never materialized.
However, in a blessed twist of fate from a Salafist-jihadi eschatological perspective, God has recently intervened on the behalf of the Ummah. The current COVID-19 pandemic is viewed by al-Qaeda as a “punishment from the Lord of the Worlds for the injustice and oppression committed against Muslims” directed at elected governments and the usury based economies underlying them.
Voice of Hind
The new online English-language magazine Voice of Hind (e.g. Sawt al Hind) first appeared in early 2020 and is meant for Islamic State members and affinity audiences in the Indian subcontinent—with Hind, short for Hindustan, representative of the Arabic term for this region derived from the Farsi term Hindu. The ‘Voice of Hind’ is meant as the official Islamic State mouthpiece for their Hind Province (Wilaayat). It could potentially be considered a follow on to the now defunct Al Risalah magazine, released in early 2019 by Jundul Khilafah Kashmir. The reason for this assumption is that the Islamic State Jammu & Kashmir (ISJK) later became part of Wilaayat Hind.
Issue 1 Voice of Hind, p. 3. [Screen Shot of an Image in the Foreword]
According to Homeland Security Today, “The first issue of ‘The Voice of Hind’ was released in late February to coincide with President Trump’s visit to India.” The more recent issue, released in late March, capitalizes on the propaganda potentials for the Islamic State related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Context related to the new magazine provided by the Counter Extremism Project is as follows:
On February 24, 2020, pro-ISIS media outlet Al-Qitaal Media Center published a new online magazine titled “Voice of Hind” featuring Mahmood Paracha, a lawyer accused of inciting hatred and violence in India. The magazine also states that there is no place for nationalism in Islam, and that India’s Muslims should join the caliphate instead. The publication represents ISIS’s latest effort to gain a foothold in India.
Voice of Hind emerged in the midst of large scale sectarian violence fueled by the controversial Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA), which critics believe discriminates against India’s Muslims. The CAA and the National Register of Citizens (NRC) now include religion as a criterion for nationality, representing a move away from India’s founding principle of secularism. The new legislation provides a path for citizenship for practicing Hindus and five other South Asian religions—Buddhism, Christianity, Sikhism, Jainism, and Zoroastrianism—but does not include Islam…
…Though India banned ISIS in 2014, the Modi government has expressed concern about the group’s ability to attract members through online propaganda. The terrorist group has not made major headway in the country. However, Indian security agencies have arrested more than 127 individuals with suspected links to ISIS.
No other language editions of Voice of Hind are presently evident. If the online magazine keeps up its fast paced monthly publication schedule, a new issue should appear towards the end of April. Such publication schedules are difficult for terrorist organizations to maintain—especially fragmented ones such as the guerrilla Caliphate it now represents—but the very modest size of this publication and its use of recycled propaganda material may make it sustainable for a one or two man desktop printing operation.
So Where Are You Going? A Call To Muslims In India. Voice of Hind (Islamic State in Hind Province).
February-March 2020 (1441 Rajab). Issue 1, 10 pp.
Table of Contents
- 03 Foreword
- 05 A Call to Muslims of Hind
- 08 Disease of Nationalism
- 09 Matters of ‘Aqeedah
An overview of the special issue states:
In the first edition of the same magazine, IS eulogized Huzaifa al-Bakistani, a Pakistani terrorist tasked with radicalizing Kashmiri youth, who was killed in 2019 in Afghanistan. The cover page had the tagline, “So where are you going? A call to Muslims of India,” asking Indian Muslims to rally to IS in the name of Islam in the aftermath of the 2020 Delhi riots.
This can be contrasted to a more detailed analysis Observer Research Foundation that provides the following insights:
On 24 February, in the midst of continuing communal tensions and violence in New Delhi, an online group identifying itself as a pro-IS entity called al-Qitaal Media Centre by Junudul Khilafaah al-Hind of a targeted online propaganda magazine for India called ‘Voice of Hind’, or ‘Sawt al Hind’ in Arabic… the magazine itself was far from the generally high production quality of IS propaganda material we have grown accustomed to (including graphs, pictures, data presentations etc). The 10-page issue began by eulogising the few alleged IS fighters from India who have died, including one Huzaifa al-Bakistani, whose name (as a pseudonym) appeared in investigations conducted by Indian law enforcement as that of an online recruiter, followed by Shafi Armar (known as Yusuf al-Hindi), a former Indian Mujahideen member.
…the issue itself did not directly mention the communal violence in New Delhi in February, despite the cover being from some of the protests during that time. It lead with the question, ‘So where are you going? A call to Muslims of India’. The issue asked Indian Muslims why they remain so placid, and featured photos of Indian Muslims celebrating the birthdays of Hindu gods as an example of the wrongs being committed by the community. The issue continued to not only chastise the current political dispensation in India, but also target those who stand by Indian Muslims from other religions. An entire page was dedicated to highlight the “disease of nationalism.” Interestingly, there was almost no mention of Kashmir, raising the question of whether this propaganda is targeted at Indian Muslims from the mainstream middle class.
A cursory review of the first issue magazine content (much of which is mentioned in the preceding quote) begins with the foreword which lauds the exploits of the mujahidin (God’s holy warriors) as the “elite of His creation’ and makes an appeal for Islamic State followers to “stand and die upon that which your brothers have died,” referring to the Wilaayah Al-Hind. This is followed by another impassioned call to arms for the Muslims of Hind and a naming of the enemies of Islam tied to the Citizen Amendment Act (CAA) as well as moderate Islamic scholars and Indian politicians. The third essay in the short issue focuses on the “Disease of Nationalism” that results in “transgression, pride, and arrogance since nationalism is not a divinely revealed way of life.” The piece asks Muslims to choose between following God’s divine path and that of Indian nationalism which results in the ‘death of Jahiliyyah’, referring to a death equivalent to that of those living in pre-Islamic times. To signify the importance of the article, an Indian nationalist rally appears on the cover of this issue. The final essay concerns the Ten Matters of ‘Aqidah (Part I) which focuses on the first three matters: the three principles, the foundation of Din, and the meaning of ‘There is No Ilah Except Allah’ which provides the distinction between kuffar (disbelievers) and Islam.
Taliban—From Jihad to Apostasy. Voice of Hind (Islamic State in Hind Province).
March-April 2020 (Sha’Ban 1441). Issue 2, 15 pp.
Table of Contents
- 03 Prerequisites for Victory
- 07 Corona Virus
- 08 Taliban—From Jihad to Apostasy
- 11 People of Bravery
- 12 The Words of Advise by Abu Hamza al Kashmiri (RH)
- 14 So, Annihilate the Disbelievers
One quick synopsis of this new issue states:
On March 25, the pro-ISIS Al-Qitaal Media Center released the second issue of an online magazine titled “Voice of Hind.” The magazine is meant to appeal to Muslims in India. The magazine called COVID-19 a divine punishment, and urged attacks on police and military forces deployed in virus related missions. The magazine also criticized the Afghan Taliban for making a deal with the United States, and included an essay by a deceased ISIS member.
Another synopsis (with a different release date noted) provides this assessment of the issue:
On March 29, IS released the second edition of its propaganda magazine focused on India, Sawt al-Hind (Voice of Hind/India) in which it once again calls the Taliban apostates and urges the group’s fighters to defect to IS. The magazine includes an old propaganda message from a deceased Kashmiri IS terrorist, Abu Hamza al-Kashmiri (real name Abdul Rehman), who was killed in 2018.
A half-a-dozen essays are contained within the second issue of the magazine that is slightly longer than the initial issue. The first essay focuses on a listing of thirteen prerequisites for victory for Muslims against their enemies. Such prerequisites include faith and righteous deeds, supporting the religion of Allah, standing firm when meeting the enemy in battle, courage, heroism, and self-sacrifice. The third essay lambasts the Taliban, who are viewed as leaving the path of jihad due to their negotiating a peace deal with the Americans and slipping into apostasy. The cover of the issue highlights this relationship by showing a laughing presumably American soldier next to a couple of Taliban fighters. Given the Taliban’s traditional alliance with al-Qaeda over the Islamic State, such a characterization is not surprising. The next piece provides five stanzas of poem-like inspiration for the “People of Bravery”—the Lions of Islam who battle the disbelievers. The words of Abu Hamza al Kashmiri (RH), a well know Islamic State martyr, are highlighted as a morale booster to the Mujahedeen, who must remain patience and steadfast while engaging in holy war. The final issue essay promotes the annihilation of the disbelievers, a common theme found throughout the issue. The short piece promotes killing the enemies of Islam by surprise—such as while with their families or praying—and by any means possible including using cars, stones, sharp objects, arson, or even poison.
Issue 2 Voice of Hind, p. 7. [Screen Shot of an Image in the Corona Virus Article]
The most timely article in the issue, the second one, concerns the corona virus. The subheading of the article states “Verily, it is a Punishment sent by Allah on whom he wished, and Allah made it Mercy for the believers.” The essay calls on the “Knights of the Tawheed [Oneness]” to attack police and military while they are deployed in the streets responding to the pandemic with a ‘sword, knife or even a rope.’ Interestingly, while the article calls COVID-19 a disease made by Allah to spread chaos to the disbelievers, other Islamic State (as well as al-Qaeda) media has given it ‘Soldier of Allah’ (SOA) status, essentially viewing it as an invisible assassin sent by God to silently hunt down the kuffar.
 Robert J. Bunker and Pamela Ligouri Bunker, The Islamic State English-Language Online Magazine Rumiyah (Rome): Research Guide, Narrative & Threat Analysis and U.S. Policy Response. Reston, VA: Terrorism Research Center, August 2019: 64-65, http://www.terrorism.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Rumiyah_eBook_web.pdf.
 The decreased frequency of radical Islamist English-language online magazine publication from its earlier hayday has been noted for some time now. This is a function of terrorist group fragmentation, the active targeting of magazine editors, and shifting social media usage from traditional magazine formats to blog and individual type postings by younger al-Qaeda and Islamic State members.
 Accorsing to SITE intelligence the magazine had earlier been publisehd in newsletter format and transitioned to a magazine format. See, “SJK Media Unit Transformers "Risalah" Newsletter into Full Magazine in Style of Rumiyah.” Site Intelligence. 2 January 2019, https://ent.siteintelgroup.com/Periodicals/isjk-media-unit-transformers-risalah-newsletter-into-full-magazine-in-style-of-rumiyah.html. Some of these issues can also be obtained by means of accessing non-paywall online file sharing sites.
 The magazine issue reviewed was obtained by means of accessing an Islamic State affinity download site. The link to the issue will not be provided for OPSEC reasons.
 “Extremist Content Online: Al-Qaeda Releases One Ummah Magazine in English.” Counter Extremism Project. 17 September 2019, https://www.counterextremism.com/press/extremist-content-online-al-qaeda-releases-one-ummah-magazine-english-0.
 “Al-Qaeda Releases 2nd Issue of ‘One Ummah’ Magazine, Bonus Supplement on Financing Jihad.” Site Intelligence. 10 August 2019, https://news.siteintelgroup.com/Jihadist-News/al-qaeda-releases-2nd-issue-of-one-ummah-magazine-bonus-supplement-on-financing-jihad.html. For a non-pay wall blocked link to the issue, see https://monitoring.ifiadvisory.com/en/al-qaeda-one-ummah-2/.
 The hyperlink is to a fragmentary copy of the magazine. Free yet vetted for researchers (https://jihadology.net) and pay wall (https://ent.siteintelgroup.com) access to a comprehensive copy may exist. A more comprehensive copy can also be obtained via al-Qaeda affiliated/affinity download services/apps/sites but this entails various computer security risks.
 Bridget Johnson, “Praising Debt and Cheering on Recession, Al-Qaeda Wants Economist Recruits to Attack America.” Homeland Security Today. 17 September 2019, https://www.hstoday.us/subject-matter-areas/counterterrorism/praising-debt-and-cheering-on-recession-al-qaeda-wants-economist-recruits-to-attack-america/.
 “The Way Forward: A World of Advice on the Coronavirus Pandemic.” Al-Qaeda. Shaban 1441/March 2020, p. 3. Posted by Thomas Joscelyn (@thomasjoscelyn), Twitter. 1 April 2020, https://twitter.com/thomasjoscelyn/status/1245311851325423616. See also Thomas Joscelyn, “How Jihadists Are Reacting to the Coronavirus Pandemic.” Dispatch. The Foundation for Defense of Democracies. 6 April 2020, https://www.fdd.org/analysis/2020/04/06/how-jihadists-are-reacting-to-the-coronavirus-pandemic/.
 “Etymology” section of the “Hindustan” definition. Wikipedia. 19 April 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindustan.
 “Al-Burhan Media, which represents Islamic State in Jammu Kashmir (now officially part of Wilayah Hind), has released new message…” Twitter. @Natsecjeff. 11 February 2020, https://twitter.com/Natsecjeff/status/1227197018768072705.
 Bridget Johnson, “ISIS Magazine Calls for Attacks on ‘Easy Target’ Military, Police During Coronavirus Chaos.” Homeland Security Today. 7 April 2020, https://www.hstoday.us/subject-matter-areas/counterterrorism/isis-magazine-calls-for-attacks-on-easy-target-military-police-during-coronavirus-chaos/.
 “Pro-ISIS Media Outlet Publishes Magazine To Incite Violence In India.” Counter Extremism Project. 5 March 2020, https://www.counterextremism.com/press/pro-isis-media-outlet-publishes-magazine-incite-violence-india.
 As this publication was completed social media mentioning the release of the Voice of Hind/Sawt Al-Hind issue 3 has appeared. See, for instance, “India/Maldives: #IS releases Voice of Hind/Sawt Al-Hind issue 3 in #Dhivehi language targeting #Maldivians #terrorism #IslamicState.” @EsiscTeam. Twitter. 28 April 2020, https://twitter.com/EsiscTeam/status/1255071283630522368.
 Saurav Sarkar, “The Islamic State’s Increasing Focus on India.” The Diplomat. 30 March 2020, https://thediplomat.com/2020/03/the-islamic-states-increasing-focus-on-india/.
 Kabir Taneja, “Islamic State propaganda in India.” Observer Research Foundation. 16 April 2020, https://www.orfonline.org/research/islamic-state-propaganda-india-64715/.
 “ISIS Releases Second Edition Of India Region Magazine” section in “Extremist Content Online: White Supremacists Urge Followers On Telegram To Exploit COVID-19.” Counter Extremism Project. 30 March 2020, https://www.counterextremism.com/press/extremist-content-online-white-supremacists-urge-followers-telegram-exploit-covid-19.
 Saurav Sarkar, “The Islamic State’s Increasing Focus on India,” Ibid.
 Brad Hunter, “ISIS, al-Qaida commandeer COVID-19 as a ‘soldier of Allah.’” Toronto Sun. 3 April 2020, https://torontosun.com/news/world/isis-al-qaida-commandeer-covid-19-as-a-soldier-of-allah.
Robert J. Bunker and Pamela Ligouri Bunker, Radical Islamist English-Language Online Magazines: Research Guide, Strategic Insights, and Policy Response. Carlisle, PA: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, August 2018.
Robert J. Bunker and Pamela Ligouri Bunker, The Islamic State English-Language Online Magazine Rumiyah (Rome): Research Guide, Narrative & Threat Analysis and U.S. Policy Response. Reston, VA: Terrorism Research Center, August 2019.
Jonathan Matusitz, Andrea Madrazo and Catalina Udani, Online Jihadist Magazines to Promote the Caliphate: Communicative Perspectives. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2019.