Small Wars Journal

Third Generation Gangs Strategic Note No. 30: Traficante Evangélico (Evangelical Trafficker) Creates “Complexo de Israel” Using Confessional Violence to Consolidate Control in Five Rio Favelas

Tue, 08/04/2020 - 9:16pm

Third Generation Gangs Strategic Note No. 30: Traficante Evangélico (Evangelical Trafficker) Creates “Complexo de Israel” Using Confessional Violence to Consolidate Control in Five Rio Favelas

John P. Sullivan, Robert J. Bunker, and José de Arimatéia da Cruz

A facção (drug trafficking faction) in Rio de Janeiro led by Álvaro Malaquias Santa Rosa, known as Peixão (Big Fish), is exploiting the COVID-19 pandemic to consolidate control over a group of favelas (slums) in the Northern Zone of Rio de Janeiro. The result is a complex of five favelas: Cidade Alta, Vigário Geral, Parada de Lucas, Cinco Bocas, and Pica-Pau known as the "Complexo de Israel" (Israel Complex or Network of Israel). The favelas comprising the  “Complexo de Israel” have a combined population of about 134,000 inhabitantsPeixão’s gang employs a mix of religious imagery and targeted confessional violence to exert territorial control and dominate the illicit market.

Peixao

Wanted poster for Álvaro Malaquias Santa Rosa (aka Peixão) by the civil police (é procurado pela Polícia Civil). Source: Disclosure–Wanted Portal (Divulgação–Portal dos Procurados).

 

Key Information: Lachlan Williams, “Drug Traffickers Create ‘Complexo de Israel’ Joining Five Favelas in Rio’s North Zone.” The Rio Times. 27 July 2020, https://riotimesonline.com/brazil-news/rio-de-janeiro/life-rio/traffickers-use-pandemic-to-create-complexo-de-israel-joining-five-favelas-in-rios-northern-zone/ :

Amid the pandemic, a drug trafficker’s gang is invading communities in the city’s Northern Zone and creating a new favela complex. In expanding his dominance, the criminal is trying to enforce religion, leaving a trail of missing persons and placing barricades on the edge of Brasil Avenue, one of the main access routes to the city of Rio de Janeiro.

The “Complexo de Israel” is the name of the group of favelas controlled by drug dealer Álvaro Malaquias Santa Rosa, aka Peixão, 34 years old…

Vigário Geral, Parada de Lucas, Cidade Alta, Pica-Pau, and Cinco Bocas are the five communities that make up the new complex, where around 134,000 people live.

The police are also investigating the gang’s expansion into two communities that have never been controlled by drug dealers: Estrada do Porto Velho and Lyrio Maurício da Fonseca Street, in the Brás de Pina region.

Key Information: “Traficante evangélico cria ‘Complexo de Israel’ em favelas do Rio e ataca católicos e umbandistas.” Revista Fórum. 25 July 2020, https://revistaforum.com.br/brasil/traficante-evangelico-cria-complexo-de-israel-em-favelas-do-rio-e-ataca-catolicos-e-umbandistas/:

Aos 34 anos e autointitulado Arão, em referência ao irmão do personagem bíblico Moisés, o traficante Álvaro Malaquias Santa Rosa, conhecido também como Peixão – uma relação ao símbolo que identifica os primeiros cristãos -, aproveitou a pandemia do coronavírus para impor o terror e unificar cinco favelas na zona norte do Rio de Janeiro criando o “Complexo de Israel”.

Com a “Tropa do Arão”, Álvaro Malaquias agora comanda o tráfico de drogas no complexo que se estende entre as comunidades de Cidade Alta, Vigário Geral, Parada de Lucas, Cinco Bocas e Pica-pau, onde moram cerca de 134 mil pessoas.[1]

Key Information: Leslie Leitão, Erick Rianelli, Filipe Fernandes, and Guilherme Santos, “Traficantes usam pandemia para criar ‘Complexo de Israel’ unindo cinco favelas na Zona Norte do Rio.” G1 (Globo). 24 July 2020, https://g1.globo.com/rj/rio-de-janeiro/noticia/2020/07/24/traficantes-usam-pandemia-para-criar-novo-complexo-de-favelas-no-rio-deixam-rastro-de-desaparecidos-e-tentam-impor-religiao.ghtml?utm_campaign=g1&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter:

Guerra religiosa

Na favela Cinco Bocas, o medo também atinge a fé. Os moradores mais velhos conhecem a região como a Vila Santa Edwiges.

Uma referência à imagem da santa instalada na quadra da comunidade.

Quem vive na favela diz que comparsas de Álvaro Rosa, o Peixão, arrancaram e destruíram a imagem. O local onde a santa ficava está vazio.

Peixão se intitula entre os criminosos como Arão, irmão de Moisés, da Bíblia. Seu braço direito no crime é Jeremias. E chama sua quadrilha de “Tropa do Arão...”

Os traficantes se apropriam de imagens e símbolos religiosos espalhando as representações nas redes sociais e em muros das áreas dominadas.[2]

Key Information: Leslie Leitão, Guilherme Santos, Filipe Fernandes, and Erick Rianelli, “Levantamento aponta pelo menos 25 pessoas desaparecidas por quadrilha em Cordovil, Brás de Pina e Parada de Lucas.” G1(Globo). 25 July 2020, https://g1.globo.com/rj/rio-de-janeiro/noticia/2020/07/25/levantamento-do-rj2-aponta-pelo-menos-25-pessoas-desaparecidas-pela-quadrilha-de-cordovil-bras-de-pina-e-parada-de-lucas.ghtml:

Um levantamento do RJ2 com moradores e policiais apontou que pelo menos 25 pessoas desapareceram nos últimos oito anos, em bairros e favelas onde a quadrilha de Cordovil, Brás de Pina e Parada de Lucas está presente. Foram 14 casos nos últimos três meses. Alguns dos desaparecidos são pessoas inocentes, trabalhadoras, que disseram “não” para os traficantes.[3]

Key Information: Matias Maxx (with Deborah Faleiros and Olivia Fraga), “NAÇÃO DE JESUSFuzis ungidos e grafite gospel em muros da comunidade: para facção do Rio, a lei do tráfico é a lei de Deus.” TAB. 27 May 2020, https://tab.uol.com.br/edicao/nacao-de-jesus/#end-card:

Depois de 2013 e nos anos seguintes, a perseguição religiosa se repetiu em comunidades ocupadas pelo TCP em Campos dos Goytacazes e na Baixada Fluminense. Jovens traficantes de baixa patente eram enviados aos centros, ordenando a proibição de guias, roupas brancas, toque de atabaques e exposição de imagens do lado de fora dos terreiros. Quem ousou contestar foi expulso da comunidade e teve o local depredado.

Nessas localidades, os ataques teriam sido ordenados por Álvaro Malaquias de Santa Rosa, o Peixão, chefe do “Complexo de Israel” (Parada de Lucas, Vigário Geral e Cidade Alta, na zona norte). A persona de Peixão é cercada de mistério: dizem que ele seria pastor, mas ninguém sabe de qual denominação. Em sua homenagem, pinturas da animação “Peixonauta” aparecem nos muros de Parada de Lucas. Peixão segue foragido e responde a 26 processos, entre eles tráfico de drogas, corrupção ativa, homicídio e ocultação de cadáver.[4]

Third Generation Gang Analysis

Álvaro Malaquias Santa Rosa, a wanted drug dealer known as Peixão (Big Fish) is exploiting the COVID-19 pandemic to expand the reach of his criminal enterprise.[5] The Peixão quadrilha (gang) is consolidating control over at least five favelas and imposing ‘religious’ discipline on favela residents to ensure their territorial control, essentially exercising a blend of criminal and spiritual insurgency.[6] 

Bandeira

Essa bandeira não significa uma facção, essa bandeira significa que ali nessa comunidade existe um exercito, um exercito que trouxe a paz, um exercito que vem deixando o seu legado por onde passa, Tropa de israel, trouxe a paz na CDA, A onde o mano pisa ele trás a paz. Deus existe

This flag does signify a faction, this flag means that there is an army in the community, an army that brought peace, an army that has left its legacy wherever it goes, Israeli troops, brought peace in the CDA, where brother steps he brings peace. God exists 

@realidadedotcp. 22 February 2020, https://twitter.com/realidadedotcp/status/1231240730510839808.

(Terceiro Comando Puro [TCP] Social Media). [Note—the structure with the Israeli flag placed upon it is located within Cidade Alta (CDA). One of the favelas within the “Complexo de Israel]

 

The area involved—known as the “Complexo de Israel”—includes five favelas: Cidade Alta, Vigário Geral, Parada de Lucas, Cinco Bocas, and Pica-Pau. The “Complexo de Israel” is strategically located along Avenida Brazil, one of the main routes into Rio de Janeiro.  Avenida Brazil connects the Baixada Fluminense to the city of Rio de Janeiro, where most of the Baixada Fluminense residents work.  Avenida Brazil passes thru several communities along the way such as Parque União, Nova Holanda, Baixa do Sapateiro, Vila Pinheiro, and Maquinhos. These are areas that could eventually fall under the control of Peixão. Authorities believe the quadrilha also has the Estrada do Porto Velho and Lyrio Maurício da Fonseca Street favelas in the Brás de Pina region in their sights.[7] Confessional violence involves conflict between different religious traditions or ‘confessions’ seeking doctrinal dominance where the confessions exert political influence.[8] Targeted confessional violence is a key component of Peixão’s expansion plans.[9]

Army of God

Exército do Deus de Israel, Army of God from Israel 

@realidadedotcp. 7 April 2020, https://twitter.com/realidadedotcp/status/1247686215798853635/photo/1

(Terceiro Comando Puro [TCP] Social Media).

Freedom Daddy

É os caça urso do Para Paz... Liberdade paizao Duka

It's the Para Paz bear hunters ... Freedom Daddy Duka

@realidadedotcp. 19 May 2020, https://twitter.com/realidadedotcp/status/1262696032066043904.

    (Terceiro Comando Puro [TCP] Social Media).

Davi

Eu quero ser como Davi , que ninguém esperava nada dele, Mas Deus acreditava em seu potencial

I want to be like David, nobody expected anything from him, But God believed in his potential

@terrodaph. 23 June 2020, https://twitter.com/terrodaph/status/1275407736705081344/photo/1.      

(Terceiro Comando Puro [TCP] Social Media).

 

According to Maurício Mendonça, chief of the 38º DP (Delegacia de Polícia or Polícia Civil precinct in Brás de Pina):

What has been perceived is that they [Peixão and his gang] are taking advantage of this period to expand territorial domination to areas that previously did not have the presence of drug trafficking.[10]

Peixão—affiliated with the Terceiro Comando Puro (TCP – Pure Third Command)—has been linked to attacks on Camdomblé temples[11], Catholics, and adherents of Umbanda.[12] Umbanda and Camdomblé are Afro-Brazilian syncretic religions.  Adherents of these faiths along with Catholics have been targeted by Evangelical and Neo-Pentecostal gangs in recent years.[13] Álvaro Malaquias Santa Rosa, characteristic of a TCP chefe de quadrilha (gang leader), has a distinct animosity toward this rivals, the Comando Vermelho (CV – Red Command, and seeks to turn that rivalry into a ‘holy struggle,’ mobilizing his adherence to Evangelical faith as a ‘spiritual bond’ for temporal power:

The youngest is here to be instructed, to be taught the new doctrine and to go there where he is a child and make a difference. (...) From now on and forever, Cidade Alta is Terceiro Comando Puro, a bullet-fighting tram, army of the Living God! There from Israel![14]

Peixão has been specifically linked to the Assembléia de Deus Ministério de Portas Abertas (Assembly of God Ministry of Open Doors).[15]  His links to confessional violence are not surprising. The exploitation of the pandemic by criminal armed groups (CAGs), including Brazilian gangs, factions, and militias (gangues, facções e milícias) was explored in “Third Generation Gangs Strategic Note No. 22: Rio’s Gangs Impose Curfews in Response to Coronavirus.”[16] The growth of Evangelical bandits (bandidos evangélicos) was the topic of an earlier Third Generation Gangs Strategic Note (No. 6) in November 2017.[17]

Pentecostal (Neo-Pentecostal) and Evangelical gangs are also in the forefront of exploiting the pandemic in order to expand their reach and power. Professor Andrew Chesnut, Bishop Walter Sullivan Chair of Catholic Studies at Virginia Commonwealth University, observes that:

Pentecostal narco capo Peixão has taken advantage of the chaos and desperation of the Covid pandemic, which has hit Brazil harder than any other country except the US, to expand and unite territory in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro. Baptizing the newly united five favelas as the “Network of Israel” (Complexo de Israel), the Pentecostal capo has ramped up the persecution of practitioners of Afro-Brazilian Umbanda, and Candomblé which he and his brethren view as satanic. Since President Bolsonaro’s largest political base are Pentecostals, his administration has turned a blind eye to the uptick in hate crimes against Umbandistas and Candomblecistas perpetrated by Pentecostal gangsters.[18]

The nexus of religious and confessional violence, organized crime, state power, and politics is a characteristic of criminal insurgency—with the inclusion of spiritual insurgency attributes—and is exemplified by the interactions between gangs, narco-milícias (drug militias), and political actors.[19] This dynamic has recently been suggested in moves by the Primeiro Comando da Capital (PCC; First Capitol Command) in Greater São Paulo where that ‘prison-street gang complex’ allegedly maintains links with politicians in the region, including mayors and federal deputies, and influential Evangelical pastors.[20]

The growing power base of the Peixão facção (Peixão faction) is apparently linked to the gang war between the Comando Vermelho (CV) and Terceiro Comando Puro (TCP). Indeed, police recently suggest in open sources that Peixão, a TCP leader, is funding a dissident milícia wing in Itaboraí. In addition, it is believed that the TCP seeks to expand links with militiamen in São Gonçalo to counter CV influence.[21] This case demonstrates the use of confessional violence to consolidate control and criminal governance in contested space. It also provides a contemporary look into criminal insurgency as a mechanism of state reconfiguratiion.

Sources

Leslie Leitão, Erick Rianelli, Filipe Fernandes, and Guilherme Santos, “Traficantes usam pandemia para criar ‘Complexo de Israel’ unindo cinco favelas na Zona Norte do Rio.” G1 (Globo). 24 July 2020,  https://g1.globo.com/rj/rio-de-janeiro/noticia/2020/07/24/traficantes-usam-pandemia-para-criar-novo-complexo-de-favelas-no-rio-deixam-rastro-de-desaparecidos-e-tentam-impor-religiao.ghtml?utm_campaign=g1&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.

Leslie Leitão, Guilherme Santos, Filipe Fernandes, and Erick Rianelli, ”Levantamento aponta pelo menos 25 pessoas desaparecidas por quadrilha em Cordovil, Brás de Pina e Parada de Lucas.” G1(Globo). 25 July 2020, https://g1.globo.com/rj/rio-de-janeiro/noticia/2020/07/25/levantamento-do-rj2-aponta-pelo-menos-25-pessoas-desaparecidas-pela-quadrilha-de-cordovil-bras-de-pina-e-parada-de-lucas.ghtml.

Matias Maxx (with Deborah Faleiros and Olivia Fraga), “NAÇÃO DE JESUS:  Fuzis ungidos e grafite gospel em muros da comunidade: para facção do Rio, a lei do tráfico é a lei de Deus.” TAB. 27 May 2020, https://tab.uol.com.br/edicao/nacao-de-jesus/#end-card.

“Traficante evangélico cria ‘Complexo de Israel’ em favelas do Rio e ataca católicos e umbandistas.” Revista Fórum. 25 July 2020, https://revistaforum.com.br/brasil/traficante-evangelico-cria-complexo-de-israel-em-favelas-do-rio-e-ataca-catolicos-e-umbandistas/.

Lachlan Williams, “Drug Traffickers Create ‘Complexo de Israel’ Joining Five Favelas in Rio’s North Zone.” The Rio Times. 27 July 2020, https://riotimesonline.com/brazil-news/rio-de-janeiro/life-rio/traffickers-use-pandemic-to-create-complexo-de-israel-joining-five-favelas-in-rios-northern-zone/.

End Notes

[1] In English, the title reads: “Evangelical drug dealer creates ‘Israel Complex’ in Rio’s favelas and attacks Catholics and Umbandistas.” The text reads: “At the age of 34 and calling himself Aaron, in reference to the brother of the biblical character Moses, the drug dealer Álvaro Malaquias Santa Rosa, also known as Peixão—a link to the symbol that identifies the first Christians, —he took advantage of the coronavirus pandemic to impose terror and unify five slums in the north of Rio de Janeiro creating the ‘Israel Complex.’”… “With the ‘Troop of Arão,’ Álvaro Malaquias now leads the drug trade in the complex that extends between the communities of Cidade Alta, Vigário Geral, Parada de Lucas, Cinco Bocas and Pica-pau, where about 134 thousand people live.”

[2] In English, the title reads: “Traffickers use pandemic to create ‘Israel Complex’ uniting five slums [favelas] in Rio’s North Zone.” The text reads: “Religious War…In the Cinco Bocas favela, fear also affects faith. Older residents know the region as Vila Santa Edwiges. A reference to the image of the saint installed in the community court. Those who live in the favela say that the cohorts of Álvaro Rosa, the Peixão, uprooted and destroyed the image. The place where the saint was is empty. Peixão calls himself among criminals as Aaron, brother of Moses, of the Bible. His right hand in crime is Jeremiah. And he calls his gang ‘Troop of Aaron.’” … “Traffickers appropriate religious images and symbols by spreading their representations on social networks and on walls in dominated areas.”

[3] In English, the title reads: “Survey shows at least 25 people missing per gang in Cordovil, Brás de Pina and Parada de Lucas.” The text reads: “An RJ2 survey of residents and police found that at least 25 people have disappeared in the past eight years, in neighborhoods and slums where the Cordovil, Brás de Pina and Parada de Lucas gangs are present. There have been 14 cases in the past three months. Some of the missing are innocent, hardworking people who have said ‘no’ to the traffickers.”

[4] In English, the title reads: “NATION OF JESUS: Anointed rifles and gospel graffiti on community walls: for Rio’s faction, the law of trafficking is the law of God;” the text reads: “After 2013 and in the following years, religious persecution was repeated in communities occupied by TCP [Terceiro Comando Puro or Pure Third Command] in Campos dos Goytacazes and Baixada Fluminense. Young, low-ranking traffickers were sent to the centers, ordering the ban on guides, white clothes, playing drums and displaying images outside the terreiros [a Candomblé house of worship]. Anyone who dared to contest was expelled from the community and the place was destroyed.” … “In these locations, the attacks were reportedly ordered by Álvaro Malaquias de Santa Rosa, the Peixão, head of the ‘Complexo de Israel’ (Parada de Lucas, Vigário Geral and Cidade Alta, in the northern zone). Peixão's persona is surrounded by mystery: they say he would be a pastor, but no one knows what denomination. In his honor, paintings from the animation ‘Peixonauta’ appear on the walls of Parada de Lucas. Peixão remains at large and faces 26 charges, including drug trafficking, active corruption, homicide and the hiding of a corpse.”

[5] Leslie Leitão, Erick Rianelli, Filipe Fernandes, and Guilherme Santos, “Traficantes usam pandemia para criar ‘Complexo de Israel’ unindo cinco favelas na Zona Norte do Rio.” G1 (Globo). 24 July 2020, https://g1.globo.com/rj/rio-de-janeiro/noticia/2020/07/24/traficantes-usam-pandemia-para-criar-novo-complexo-de-favelas-no-rio-deixam-rastro-de-desaparecidos-e-tentam-impor-religiao.ghtml?utm_campaign=g1&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter

[6] John P. Sullivan and Robert J. Bunker, “Rethinking insurgency: criminality, spirituality, and societal warfare in the Americas," Small Wars & Insurgencies. , Vol. 22, Issue 5. 2001, pp. 742-763. DOI: 10.1080/09592318.2011.625720.

[7] Lachlan Williams, “Drug Traffickers Create ‘Complexo de Israel’ Joining Five Favelas in Rio’s North Zone.” The Rio Times. 27 July 2020, https://riotimesonline.com/brazil-news/rio-de-janeiro/life-rio/traffickers-use-pandemic-to-create-complexo-de-israel-joining-five-favelas-in-rios-northern-zone/.

[8] Confessional violence (or inter-confessional violence) is a form of communal violence resulting from conflict where the adherents of one faith tradition or ‘confession’ seek doctrinal purity and political influence. See, for example, Robert Walinski-Kiehl, “’Godly States’, Confessional Conflict and Witch-Hunting in Early Modern Germany.”Mentalities, Hamilton, Vol. 5, Issue 2. 1. January 1988, pp. 13; Isabel Karremann, Cornel Zwierlein, and Inga Mai Groote (Eds.), Forgetting Faith? Negotiating Confessional Conflict in Early Modern Europe. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2012; and Leo D. Lefebure (Ed.), Religion, Authority, and the State: From Constantine to the Contemporary World.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. A contemporary example of confessional violence can be seen in use of violence by the Islamic State. See, Sanjeev Kumar, “Islam and the Question of Confessional Religious Identity: The Islamic State, Apostasy, and the Making of a Theology of Violence.” Contemporary Review of the Middle East. Vol. 5, no. 4, December 2018, pp. 327–48. DOI: 10.1177/2347798918806415.

[9] “Traficante evangélico cria ‘Complexo de Israel’ em favelas do Rio e ataca católicos e umbandistas.” Revista Fórum. 25 July 2020, https://revistaforum.com.br/brasil/traficante-evangelico-cria-complexo-de-israel-em-favelas-do-rio-e-ataca-catolicos-e-umbandistas/.

[10] Cited in Leslie Leitão, Erick Rianelli, Filipe Fernandes, and Guilherme Santos, “Traficantes usam pandemia para criar ‘Complexo de Israel’ unindo cinco favelas na Zona Norte do Rio.” See note 5. In the original Portuguese: “O que se tem percebido é que eles estão se aproveitando desse período para ampliar a dominação territorial pra áreas que antes não tinham a presença do tráfico de drogas. Então, ruas que eram comumente acessíveis pela sociedade e pelas forças de segurança.”

[11] Matias Maxx (with Deborah Faleiros and Olivia Fraga), “NAÇÃO DE JESUS:  Fuzis ungidos e grafite gospel em muros da comunidade: para facção do Rio, a lei do tráfico é a lei de Deus.” TAB. 27 May 2020, https://tab.uol.com.br/edicao/nacao-de-jesus/#end-card and Chris Dalby, “Brazil’s Evangelical Gangs Waging War on Afro-Brazilian Religions.” InSight Crime. 13 January 2020, https://www.insightcrime.org/news/analysis/brazil-evangelical-christian-gangs/.

[12] “Traficante evangélico cria ‘Complexo de Israel’ em favelas do Rio e ataca católicos e umbandistas.” Revista Fórum. 25 July 2020, https://revistaforum.com.br/brasil/traficante-evangelico-cria-complexo-de-israel-em-favelas-do-rio-e-ataca-catolicos-e-umbandistas/. Also see Note 1.

[13] See “Robert Muggah, “Evangelical gangs in Rio de Janeiro wage ‘holy war’ on Afro-Brazilian faiths.” The Conversation. 16 December 2016, https://theconversation.com/evangelical-gangs-in-rio-de-janeiro-wage-holy-war-on-afro-brazilian-faiths-128679; Andrew Chesnut, “Pentecostal Gangs in Rio de Janeiro Ratchet Up Their Persecution of Afro-Brazilian Religions under President Bolsonaro.” Patheos. 29 August 2019, https://www.patheos.com/blogs/theglobalcatholicreview/2019/08/pentecostal-gangs-in-rio-de-janeiro-ratchet-up-their-persecution-of-afro-brazilian-religions-under-president-bolsonaro/; and Eduardo Campos Lima, “Practitioners of Afro-Brazilian religions fear increasing intolerance under Bolsonaro.” Religion News Service. 25 April 2019, https://religionnews.com/2019/04/25/practitioners-of-afro-brazilian-religions-fear-increasing-intolerance-under-bolsonaro/.

[14] Álvaro Malaquias Santa Rosa Matias (Peixão), quoted in Maxx (with Deborah Faleiros and Olivia Fraga), “NAÇÃO DE JESUS:  Fuzis ungidos e grafite gospel em muros da comunidade: para facção do Rio, a lei do tráfico é a lei de Deus.” TAB. 27 May 2020, https://tab.uol.com.br/edicao/nacao-de-jesus/#end-card.In the original Portuguese: “O menor tá aqui pra ser instruído, pra ser ensinada a nova doutrina e ir lá onde ele é cria e fazer a diferença. (...) A partir de agora e para sempre, a Cidade Alta é Terceiro Comando Puro, bonde dos taca bala, exército do Deus Vivo! Lá de Israel!”

[15] “Um dos principais nomes do TCP, ‘Peixão’ é filiado a uma igreja da Assembleia de Deus Ministério de Portas Abertas, segundo a Polícia Civil.” Henrique Coelho, “Com líder pastor, facção tem ‘quartel-general’ em condomínio em Duque de Caxias, RJ.” G1 (Globo). 15 August 2019, https://g1.globo.com/rj/rio-de-janeiro/noticia/2019/08/15/com-lider-pastor-faccao-tem-quartel-general-em-condominio-em-duque-de-caxias-rj.ghtml.

[16] John P. Sullivan, José de Arimatéia da Cruz, and Robert J. Bunker, “Third Generation Gangs Strategic Note No. 22: Rio’s Gangs Impose Curfews in Response to Coronavirus.” Small Wars Journal. 10 April 2020, https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/third-generation-gangs-strategic-note-no-22-rios-gangs-impose-curfews-response-coronavirus.

[17] Robert J. Bunker, John P. Sullivan, and José de Arimatéia da Cruz, “Third Generation Gangs Strategic Note No. 6 - Holy War in Rio’s Favelas: Bandidos Evangélicos (Evangelical Bandits).” Small Wars Journal. 15 November 2017, https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/third-generation-gangs-strategic-note-no-6-holy-war-rios-favelas-bandidos-evangelicos.

[18] Andrew Chesnut, personal communication, 29 July 2020.

[19] See John P. Sullivan, “Criminal Insurgency: Narcocultura, Social Banditry, and Information Operations.” Small Wars Journal. 3 December 2012, https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/criminal-insurgency-narcocultura-social-banditry-and-information-operations.

[20] See John P. Sullivan, José de Arimatéia da Cruz, and Robert J. Bunker, “Third Generation Gangs Strategic Note No. 28: PCC Exploits Medical and Dental Clinics to sustain Criminal Governance in Greater São Paulo.” Small Wars Journal. 11 July 2020, https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/third-generation-gangs-strategic-note-no-28-pcc-exploits-medical-and-dental-clinics.  Also see Allan de Abreu and Josmar Jozino, “PCC Veste Branco.” Revista Piauí. 30 June 2020, https://piaui.folha.uol.com.br/pcc-veste-branco/ and Luis Adorno, “PCC usava igreja evangélica paera lavar dinheiro em SP, diz PF; pastor é preso.” Noticias UOL. 21 February 2018, https://noticias.uol.com.br/cotidiano/ultimas-noticias/2018/02/21/pcc-usava-igreja-evangelica-para-lavar-dinheiro-em-sp-diz-pf-pastor-e-preso.htm.

[21] See “Traficante ‘Peixão’, do ‘TCP’ está financiando ala dissidente de milícia em Itaboraí.” O São Gonçalo. 6 May 2020, https://www.osaogoncalo.com.br/seguranca-publica/81906/traficante-peixao-do-tcp-esta-financiando-ala-dissidente-de-milicia-em-itaborai.

For Additional Reading

John P. Sullivan and Robert J. Bunker, Eds. Strategic Notes on Third Generation Gangs. Bloomington: Xlibris, 2020.

John P. Sullivan, José de Arimatéia da Cruz and Robert J. Bunker, “Third Generation Gangs Strategic Note No. 22: Rio’s Gangs Impose Curfews in Response to Coronavirus.” Small Wars Journal. 10 April 2020.

John P. Sullivan, “The Challenges of Territorial Gangs: Civil Strife, Criminal Insurgencies and Crime Wars.” Revista do Ministério Público Militar (Brazil), Edição n. 31, November 2019.

Robert J. Bunker, John P. Sullivan and José de Arimatéia da Cruz, “Third Generation Gangs Strategic Note No. 6 - Holy War in Rio’s Favelas: Bandidos Evangélicos (Evangelical Bandits).” Small Wars Journal. 15 November 2017.

R. Andrew Chesnut, Born Again in Brazil: The Pentecostal Boom and the Pathogens of Poverty. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1997.

 

 

About the Author(s)

Dr. John P. Sullivan was a career police officer. He is an honorably retired lieutenant with the Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department, specializing in emergency operations, transit policing, counterterrorism, and intelligence. He is currently an Instructor in the Safe Communities Institute (SCI) at the Sol Price School of Public Policy, University of Southern California. Sullivan received a lifetime achievement award from the National Fusion Center Association in November 2018 for his contributions to the national network of intelligence fusion centers. He completed the CREATE Executive Program in Counter-Terrorism at the University of Southern California and holds a Bachelor of Arts in Government from the College of William and Mary, a Master of Arts in Urban Affairs and Policy Analysis from the New School for Social Research, and a PhD from the Open University of Catalonia (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya). His doctoral thesis was “Mexico’s Drug War: Cartels, Gangs, Sovereignty and the Network State.” He can be reached at jpsullivan@smallwarsjournal.com.

Dr. Robert J. Bunker is Director of Research and Analysis, C/O Futures, LLC, and an adjunct research professor, Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. He holds university degrees in political science, government, social science, anthropology-geography, behavioral science, and history and has undertaken hundreds of hours of counterterrorism training. Past professional associations include Minerva Chair at the Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College and Futurist in Residence, Training and Development Division, Behavioral Science Unit, Federal Bureau of Investigation Academy, Quantico. He has well over 500 publications—including about 40 books as co-author, editor, and co-editor—and can be reached at docbunker@smallwarsjournal.com .   

Dr. José de Arimatéia da Cruz is a Professor of International Relations and International Studies at Georgia Southern University, Savannah, GA. He also is an Adjunct Research Professor at the U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, Carlisle, PA, and a Research Fellow of the Brazil Research Unit at the Council on Hemispheric Affairs in Washington, DC.