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Gauging the Impact of the Firearms and Ammunition Lost During the June 2010 Violence in Southern Kyrgyzstan

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Gauging the Impact of the Firearms and Ammunition Lost During the June 2010 Violence in Southern Kyrgyzstan

Matthew Stein

The June 2010 violence that took place in southern Kyrgyzstan caused a significant number of deaths, injuries, displaced persons, property damage, and general unease among the people.  The consequences and concerns of this violence remain.[1]  One concern is the firearms and ammunition crowds seized from police stations and facilities of the Ministries of the Interior and Defense, and the Border Guards service.[2]

The firearms included pistols, assault (Kalashnikov variants) and sniper rifles, grenades and thousands of rounds of ammunition.  The crowds even seized a BRDM (combat reconnaissance vehicle), a BMP-1 (infantry fighting vehicle), and a BTR-80 (armored personnel carrier).  The government recovered the vehicles after the violence, but half of the firearms and ammunition were still unaccounted for as of May 2013.[3]

The large number of firearms unaccounted for since June 2010 is certainly a problem, but there has not been much focus or follow up on the impact that this has had on security in Kyrgyzstan.  One way of gauging this is to look at instances of firearms being used in crimes since June 2010.  It is certainly possible that any crimes committed after June 2010 took place with firearms that were legally registered or in previous possession of the perpetrator.  However, a look at the number of crimes committed with firearms will show whether or not there was a rise in crime that could be attributed to the lost weapons.

Legal Ownership of Firearms in Kyrgyzstan

Civilians are allowed to possess firearms in Kyrgyzstan after completing a registration process with the Interior Ministry.[4]  The majority of registered firearms used by civilians are rifles and shotguns for hunting, though these firearms are reportedly often purchased for self-defense.  People who work in private security firms can possess a firearm, and the bulk of these are semi-automatic pistols.[5]  According to one estimate, there are 45,000 firearms owned by civilians, although the number of registered firearms is only one-third of that.[6]

The Number of Firearms and Ammunition Lost

The seizure of firearms that took place in June 2010 is not the first time that firearms were lost from military or security services facilities.  There have been documented cases of this taking place before 2010.  In addition, a number of firearms were lost during the April 2010 revolution.[7]  Kylym Shamy, a human rights organization in Kyrgyzstan, published a report in June 2011 on the seizures of firearms that took place in the Osh and Jalal-abad Provinces during the June 2010 violence.  According to this report there were 18 facilities that lost firearms, 6 of which are located in and around the city of Osh.[8]  The lost firearms and ammunition include:

  • 2 RPK-74 light machine guns (5.45x39mm)[9]
  • 14 F-1 fragmentation grenades
  • 2 GP grenade launchers (the GP is mounted under the barrel of the AKM or the AK-74 Kalashnikov assault rifles; report does not mention if it is the GP-25 or GP-30)[10]
  • 105 assault rifles, Kalashnikov variants – AKM (7.62x39mm), AK-74, AKS-74, and AKS-74U (the latter three are 5.45x39mm)[11]
  • 1 TOZ-18 rifle (caliber is not mentioned, possibly .22)
  • 19 semi-automatic pistols – Makarov (9x18mm), Tokarev (7.62x25mm), and Tulsky (not specified, possibly the 6P28, 7.62x41mm) pistols[12]
  • 1199 rounds of 9mm ammunition (not specified, but most likely 9x18mm Makarov)
  • 11,700 rounds of 5.45x39mm ammunition
  • 197 rounds of 5.45x39mm tracer ammunition
  • 1215 rounds of 7.62x39mm ammunition
  • 41 rounds of 7.62x39mm tracer ammunition
  • 50 rounds of .22 caliber ammunition
  • 214 rounds of 7.62x54Rmm ammunition (report claims it is for the Mosin rifle, sniper variant; this is possibly the 7N14 cartridge, a match grade ammunition, but could also be used for a Dragunov sniper rifle)[13]
  • 4890 rounds of 7.62x39mm PS ammunition (ball rounds with a steel core, possibly armor piercing)[14]
  • 2060 rounds of 7.62x54Rmm LPS ammunition (light ball rounds with a steel core)[15]
  • 1000 rounds of Kalashnikov 7.62mm tank ammunition (7.62x54Rmm rounds for the PKT or PKTM, which can be mounted on several types of Russian tanks; this could also be LPS ammunition.  It should be noted that the PKT/PKTM has a longer and heavier barrel than a standard PKM)[16]
  • 1000 rounds of T-46 ammunition (7.62x54Rmm tracer rounds)[17]
  • 1000 rounds of heavy machine gun armor-piercing incendiary ammunition (caliber not specified in the report, possibly 12.7x108mm rounds, which can be used in a DShK machine gun)
  • 600 rounds of KPVT MDZ ammunition (14.5x114mm high explosive incendiary rounds for the KPVT heavy machine gun)[18]
  • 200 rounds of KPVT BZT ammunition (14.5x114mm  armor-piercing incendiary tracer rounds for the KPVT heavy machine gun)[19]
  • 200 rounds of KPVT B-32 ammunition (14.5x114mm armor piercing incendiary rounds with a steel core for the KPVT heavy machine gun; the report also mentions that there was one round of 14.5x114mm of unknown type still missing)[20]
  • 120 rounds of 40mm VOG-25 fragmentation grenades (for the GP grenade launcher)
  • 105 rounds of 40mm VOG-25P fragmentation grenades (also for the GP launcher; an antipersonnel round that includes a small charge in the grenade that causes it to bounce off the ground to a height of roughly 0.75m before detonating the main charge)[21]
  • 19 rounds of antitank ammunition for the SPG-9 (rounds are 73mm for the SPG-9 recoilless gun)[22]
  • 7 bayonets (report does not mention what rifle they attach to)

 

Additionally, the report mentions that 136 signal flares, 108 rounds of 7.62x39mm blank ammunition, 47 magazines for Kalashnikov variants (the report claims that the magazines were loaded with ammunition, but does not mention how many rounds or which type of ammunition, or if this is separate from the lost ammunition already mentioned in the list), 3550 rounds of 5.45x39mm signaling rounds (used for training purposes), 16 rounds of 9mm signaling rounds (likely 9x18mm), 19 helmets, and 5 entrenching shovels were lost.[23]

While the report focuses on the loss of firearms and ammunition during the June 2010 conflict, it also provides the numbers of firearms lost in the revolution from April 6-7, 2010.  This includes:

  • 118 Makarov pistols
  • 5 Tokarev pistols
  • 12 Stechkin automatic pistols (9x18mm)[24]
  • 4 PSM pistols (5.45x18mm)[25]
  • 5 Margolin pistols (.22 caliber)[26]
  • 36 AKS-74U assault rifles
  • 17 AKS-74 assault rifles
  • 5 AKM assault rifles
  • 10 AKMS assault rifles
  • AK-74 assault rifles
  • 6 Saiga 410-K shotguns (.410 gauge)[27]
  • 3 SKS carbines (7.62x39mm)[28]
  • 3 TOZ-18 rifles
  • 2 TOZ-12 rifles
  • 2 Dragunov sniper rifles (7.62x54Rmm)[29]
  • 1 PK machine gun
  • 25 Winchesters (not specified if these are rifles or shotguns)
  • 10 long barrel shotguns (gauge not specified)
  • 6 short barrel shotguns (gauge not specified)

Statistics on Crimes Committed with Firearms Before and After 2010

Accurate statistics on crimes committed with firearms in Kyrgyzstan are difficult to acquire, but there are a couple of sources that provide an indication of how many of these crimes took place before and after June 2010.  Official statistics in Kyrgyzstan are not consistently reliable, and of the reports published by the National Statistics Committee on the numbers of crimes, only one includes information about crimes committed with weapons.[30]  While its accuracy is questionable, this report at least offers a number with which to make a comparison.  Official statistics show that there was an increase in the number of crimes committed with smoothbore and rifled firearms from an estimated 38 in 2009 to 65 in 2010.[31]  The statistics do not include a breakdown of crimes by month during 2010, so it is not possible to notice any increase related to the June violence or the months after. 

Another way to gauge the number of crimes committed with firearms is to look at news reports of criminal activity on AKI Press Svodka.  According to these reports, there were an estimated 31 crimes committed with firearms in 2009, although this total does not include an unknown number of suspects involved in an armed robbery of guests at a hotel in Bishkek.[32]  This number is based on one individual committing at least one crime with a firearm, although it is possible that the suspect committed multiple crimes at the time of the incident without this having been mentioned in the news report.  There may have also been crimes not reported in the news or to the police. 

There were an estimated 40 crimes committed with firearms in 2010 (before and after June), according to news reports, while official statistics report 65 crimes.[33]  Both of these numbers do not take into consideration crimes that took place during the June 2010 violence, which resulted in the deaths of 275 people from gunshot wounds, not to mention other firearms-related crimes across the Osh and Jalal-abad Provinces.[34]  While this does question the accuracy of the numbers from both sources for 2010, the level of violence in southern Kyrgyzstan in June 2010 is more significant than that of the average crime committed with a firearm.  There has not been an incident in Kyrgyzstan since then that matched this violence.  The present issue for Kyrgyzstan’s security, however, is the number of crimes that have taken place since then. 

There are no official statistics on crimes committed with firearms for 2011, 2012, or 2013.  According to news reports, in 2011 there were an estimated 35 crimes committed with firearms,[35] 30 crimes in 2012,[36] and 14 crimes through July 31, 2013.[37]

The Impact of the Lost Firearms on Security

Before looking at the impact of the loss of firearms on security in Kyrgyzstan, it is worth noting that there have been a few high profile incidents of violence since June 2010 that did not involve firearms in the hands of civilians, including a shooting between the Border Guards of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan on July 17, 2012 in Jalal-abad Province; a clash between residents of the villages of Charbak (Batken Province, Kyrgyzstan) and Hushyar (Sokh enclave, Uzbekistan) on January 5-7, 2013; a clash between residents of the villages of Ak-Sai (Batken Province, Kyrgyzstan) and Hojai Alo (Vorukh enclave, Tajikistan) on April 27, 2013; a clash between protestors and government security forces at the town of Barskoon (Issyk Kul Province) on May 31, 2013; and a shooting between the Border Guards of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan on July 23, 2013, which resulted in the death of an Uzbek Border Guard.  There were also multiple incidents of civilians being shot by Border Guards services when attempting to illegally cross the border.[38]

There are three other firearms-related issues in addition to the number of violent crimes committed.  First, in 2011 people were caught in possession of homemade firearms and police raided a workshop near the city of Osh that had been modifying air rifles to use real cartridges.[39]  Second, police report seizing illegally held firearms from people, but these rarely mention that the firearm’s serial number matches those of lost weapons from June 2010.[40]  Lastly, reports state that the loss of weapons contributed to black market sales of firearms in Kyrgyzstan, and that Makarov pistols and Kalashnikov rifles appear to be in demand.[41]

Overall, the loss of firearms and ammunition does not appear to have contributed to a rise in violent crime as news reports show that the number of crimes committed with firearms did not rise.  Although the lack of a rise in crime might seem to be a better outcome than initially expected, there have been other violent incidents like the clashes on the border.  Firearms were involved in a few of these, but they were in the possession of border guards and not civilians.  These are not incidents like the violence in southern Kyrgyzstan in June 2010.  The numbers from the AKI Press Svodka reports are not definitive, but with a lack of other available statistics, they are an indication of how many of these types crimes took place. 

Nevertheless, uneasiness among people is still a major result of the June 2010 violence.[42]  People in Kyrgyzstan legally purchased firearms for self defense before June 2010 and continue to feel a need to protect themselves against any future incidents or crime.  Even some members of Kyrgyzstan’s parliament carry firearms for self-defense.[43]  Some of the lost firearms may have wound up in the hands of criminals, but a fair number could be in the possession of civilians for self defense.  While there has not been an increase in crimes committed with firearms due to the lost arsenals, there is very likely a belief among people that this could change.

End Notes

[1] Informagenstvo “Fergana”, “ferghana blog, Tsentr Kyrgyzstana vs periferiya: Kto kogo?..,” August 26, 2010, http://ferghana-blog.livejournal.com/114965.html, (accessed June 5, 2013); Informagenstvo “Fergana”, “ferghana blog, Foto Ivara Dale (Norvezhskiĭ Khel’sinskiĭ Komitet) – iz Osha i Dzhalal-Abada,” July 1, 2010, http://ferghana-blog.livejournal.com/111348.html, (accessed June 5, 2013); Crisis Management Initiative, “Activities, Past Projects, Kyrgyzstan Inquiry Commission,” http://www.cmi.fi/activities/past-projects/kyrgyzstan-inquiry-commission, (accessed June 5, 2013); Kylym Shamy, “Spisok pogibshikh v rezul’tate iyun’skikh sobytiĭ 2010 goda na yuge respubliki,” December 16, 2011, http://web.archive.org/web/20130118190350/http://ksh.kg/?p=165, (accessed July 2, 2013).

[2] “Report: The role of the public authorities during the June events of 2010 in Kyrgyzstan,” Kylym Shamy, September 26, 2012, http://www.osce.org/odihr/94352, (accessed June 6, 2013); “Kyrgyzstan: Iz 282 edinits boevoĭ tekhniki i oruzhiya, zakhvachennykh na yuge strany god nazad, vozvrashcheno menee poliviny,” Fergana News, June 13, 2011, http://www.fergananews.com/news.php?id=16855, (accessed June 6, 2013).

[3] Kylym Shamy, “Results of documenting of data on the seized/distributed firearms, military hardware and ammunition during mass riots taken place in the South of the Kyrgyz Republic (sic),” (2011); “MVD: Nesmotrya na provodimuyu rabotu, osnovnaya chast’ uteryannogo ili pokhishchennogo oruzhiya ostaetsya ne vozvrashchennoĭ,” AKI Press Svodka, August 1, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:128701/, (accessed July 25, 2013); Cholpon Sulaĭmanova, “Oruzhie, uteryannoe vo vremya sobytiĭ 2010 goda, ne bylo polnost’yu vozvrashcheno iz-za nedostatochnogo financirovaniya – Sh. Atakhanov,” Kabar, May 14, 2013, http://kabar.kg/rus/law-and-order/full/54984, (accessed July 25, 2013).

[4] The process and requirements of registering a firearm in Kyrgyzstan is available on the website of Kyrgyzstan’s Interior Ministry, see: Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del Kyrgyzskoĭ Respubliki, “Fizicheskim Litsam, Uslugi, Vydacha razresheniĭ i litsenziĭ po voprosam oruzhiya, boepripasov i dr., http://www.mvd.kg/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=154%3A2009-08-13-13-05-34&catid=35%3A2009-08-13-12-59-32&Itemid=92&lang=ru, (accessed June 25, 2013).

[5] S. Neil MacFarlane and Stina Torjesen, “Small Arms in Kyrgyzstan,” Small Arms Survey (March 2007), http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/B-Occasional-papers/SAS-OP12-2ed-Kyrgyzstan.pdf, (accessed June 20, 2013).

[6] GunPolicy.org, “Facts by Country, Kyrgyzstan, Gun Numbers, Civilians Guns,” http://www.gunpolicy.org/firearms/region/kyrgyzstan, (accessed June 26, 2013).

[7] MacFarlane and Torjesen, “Small Arms in Kyrgyzstan,”; Sergeĭ Shvets, “Stvol na stol!,” Vecherniĭ Bishkek, April 29, 2010, http://members.vb.kg/2010/04/29/panorama/11.html, (accessed July 3, 2013).

[8] Kylym Shamy, “Obespechenie bezopasnosti ognestrel’nogo oruzhiya, voennoĭ tekhniki i boepripasov vo vremya massovykh besporyadkov so storony gosudarstva,” www.fergananews.com/archive/2011/publication_kylym.doc, (accessed at Fergana News, July 23, 2013); “Pravozashchitniki podgotovili otchyot po zakhvachennomu i vydannomu oruzhiyu vo vremya iyun’skikh sobytiĭ,” AKI Press Svodka, June 13, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:87471/, (accessed July 29, 2013).

[9] David Naumovich Bolotin, Istoriya Sovetskogo Strelkovogo Oruzhiya i Patronov (Saint Petersburg: Poligon, 1995), 186.

[10] Charlie Cutshaw, The New World of Russian Small Arms & Ammo (Boulder: Paladin, 1998), 122-123.

[11] Bolotin, Istoriya Sovetskogo Strelkovogo Oruzhiya i Patronov, 129-135.

[12] Bolotin, Istoriya Sovetskogo Strelkovogo Oruzhiya i Patronov, 20-23, 28, 41-44; JSC “Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod”, “Products, Military, 7,62 mm Special Self-loading Pistol (Index 6P28),” http://www.tulatoz.ru/en/production/detail.php?ID=69&SECTION_ID=6, (accessed August 9, 2013).

[13] Cutshaw, The New World of Russian Small Arms & Ammo, 143; Konstantin Sovolyov, “Patrony k snaĭperskim vintovkam,” Kalashnikov No. 4 (2001), http://www.kalashnikov.ru/upload/medialibrary/541/18_31.pdf, (accessed July 18, 2013).

[14] Cutshaw, The New World of Russian Small Arms & Ammo, 142; Yuriĭ Ponomaryov, “Biografiya Patrona,” Kalashnikov No. 8 (2004), http://www.kalashnikov.ru/upload/medialibrary/804/10_16.pdf, (accessed July 19, 2013).

[15] Yuriĭ Ponomaryov, “Rozhdenie LPS,” Kalashnikov No. 9 (2008), http://www.kalashnikov.ru/upload/medialibrary/47c/044_048.pdf, (accessed July 19, 2013). 

[16] Small Arms Survey, ““Weapons and Markets, Tools, The Weapons ID Database, Machine Guns, PK,” http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/weapons/SAS-weapons-machine-guns-PK.pdf, (accessed July 22, 2013).

[17] Armaco, “Products, Ammunition, Small Arms Ammunition, 7.62x54R mm, 7.62x54R mm – Tracer T-46, Bimetal Case,” http://www.armaco.bg/product/small-arms-ammunitions-c14/7-62x54r-mm-tracer-t-46-bimetal-case-p145, (accessed July 19, 2013).

[18] Sergey Monetchikov, “Oruzheĭnaya Masterskaya: Krupnokalibernye pulemetnye patron,” Bratishka June (2012), http://www.bratishka.ru/archiv/2012/06/2012_6_7.php, (accessed July 19, 2013).

[19] Ibid.

[20] Ibid.

[21] Arms.ru, “Ognestrel’noe oruzhie, Granatomety, Podostvol’nyĭ granatomet GP-25,” http://www.arms.ru/Guns/grenade/gp2501.htm, (accessed July 22, 2013).

[22] Small Arms Survey, “Weapons and Markets, Tools, The Weapons ID Database, Explosive Light Weapons, SPG-9,” http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/Weapons_and_Markets/Tools/Weapons_ID_DB/SAS_weapons-recoilless-guns-SPG9.pdf, (accessed July 22, 2013).

[23] Sergey Manetchikov, “Oruzheĭnaya masterskaya: Pirotekhnicheskie signal’nye sredstva blizhnego deĭstviya,” Bratishka October (2012), http://www.bratishka.ru/archiv/2012/10/2012_10_5.php, (accessed July 23, 2013); Yaguar, “Okhota, Oruzhie, Pnevmaticheskoe oruzhie, Pistolet signal. MR 371-02,” http://www.yaguarkam.ru/index.php?productID=115671, (accessed July 23, 2013); Makarych, “Aksessuary, Patrony, Patron signal’nyĭ (shumovoĭ), kal. 9mm RA,” http://www.makarych.ru/rus/acessories/cartridges/good_8.htm, (accessed July 23, 2013).

[24] Bolotin, Istoriya Sovetskogo Strelkovogo Oruzhiya i Patronov, 30-31.

[25] Bolotin, Istoriya Sovetskogo Strelkovogo Oruzhiya i Patronov, 34-36.

[26] Sergey Monetchikov, “Arsenal: Sovremennoe Rossiĭskoe sluzhebnoe i grazhdanskoe oruzhie samooborony,” Bratishka July (2008), http://www.bratishka.ru/archiv/2008/7/2008_7_11.php, (accessed August 9, 2013).

[27] Izmash, “Products, Weapons, Hunting Guns, Saiga-410,” http://www.izhmash.ru/eng/product/saiga-410.shtml, (accessed August 9, 2013).

[28] Bolotin, Istoriya Sovetskogo Strelkovogo Oruzhiya i Patronov, 83.

[29] Cutshaw, The New World of Russian Small Arms & Ammo, 27-30.

[30] Assessments of official statistics in Kyrgyzstan vary.  Economic related statistics in Kyrgyzstan have not known to be reliable, see: Roman Mogilevskii, “Re-export Activities in Kyrgyzstan: Issues and Prospects,” University of Central Asia, Institute of Public Policy and Administration, Working Paper No. 9 (2012), http://www.ucentralasia.org/downloads/UCA-IPPA-WP-9-Reexport-Eng.pdf, (accessed June 27, 2013); A report by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) assessed and made recommendations to improve Kyrgyzstan’s National Statistic’s Committee, but did not include information on how crime statistics are obtained in the country, see: UNECE, “Main Areas of Work, Statistics, Technical cooperation, Global Assessment of the statistical system of Kyrgyzstan,” http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/stats/publications/Kyrgyzstan_global_Eng.pdf, (accessed June 27, 2013); The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) published statistics on crime in Kyrgyzstan in 2009, but focused on drug related crimes, see:  UNODC, “Field Offices, Europe and West/Central Asia, Central Asia, UNODC Central Asia, Drug Statistics, Statistics, Crime, Kyrgyzstan, http://dbroca.uz/?act=crimes, (accessed June 27, 2013).

[31] See page 110: Natsional’nyĭ Statisticheskiĭ Komitet Kyrgyzskoĭ Respubliki, “Publikatskii, Sotsial’nye tendentsii Kyrgyzskoĭ Respubliki,” http://stat.kg/images/stories/docs/tematika/trendy%202010.pdf, (accessed June 25, 2013).

[32]  For reports on crimes committed with a weapon in Kyrgyzstan in 2009, see: “Militsieĭ raskryto razboĭnoe napadenie v Kemine,” AKI Press Svodka, January 30, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:4081/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “Na Issyk-Kule muzhchina poluchil ognestrel’noe oruzhie, podozrevaemyĭ arestovan,” AKI Press Svodka, March 14, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:8571/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “Razyskivayutsya troe uchastnikov nochnoĭ perestrelki, sredi nikh – byvshiĭ spetsnazovets,” AKI Press Svodka, March 19, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:9101/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “V Aktale u 3-x brakon’erov iz”yaty ruzh’ya,” AKI Press Svodka, April 8, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:11261/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “Militsieĭ peresechen razboĭ, zaderzhana gruppa iz 4 chelovek,” AKI Press Svodka, May 4, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:13201/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “Pistolet, vydannyĭ telokhranitelem S.Kadyralieva, predpolozhitel’no zameshan v dvukh ubiĭstvakh,” AKI Press Svodka, May 6, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:13371/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “Militsiya zaderzhala v Bishkeke muzhchinu s arsenalom oruzhiya, planirovavshego razboĭnoe napadenie na kommersanta,” AKI Press Svodka, May 13, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:13981/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “Zaderzhan byvshiĭ sotrudnik otelya «Ak-Keme», ugrozhaya oruzhiyem, zavladevshiĭ den’gami rukovoditelya finotdela otelya,” AKI Press Svodka, May 23, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:14811/, (accessed June 27, 2009); “Militsieĭ za razboĭnoe napadenie na punkt obmena valyut zaderzhan bishkekchanin,” AKI Press Svodka, June 10, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:16751/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “U 18-letnego parnya, podozrevaemogo v razboe, iz”yato nezakonnoe oruzhie,” AKI Press Svodka, June 15, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:17281/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “Zhitel’ Zhumgal’skogo raĭona, ugrozhaya oruzhiem, izbil odnosel’chanina,” AKI Press Svodka, June 26, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:18371/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “V Karakole neizvestnymi ubit strelok VOKHRa,” AKI Press Svodka, July 21, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:20451/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “V Toktogule muzhchina na pochve ssory vystrelil v zhenshchinu,” AKI Press Svodka, August 3, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:21361/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “V Bishkeke soversheno razboĭnoe napadenie na supermarket «Narodnyĭ»,” AKI Press Svodka, August 21, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:22721/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “V Alamedine dvoe parneĭ otobrali oruzhie u okhrannika i ugnali gruzovik iz predpriyatiya,” AKI Press Svodka, September 3, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:23521/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “Pogranichnik na postu «Baĭmak» sluchaĭno vystrelil zhenshchine v golovu,” AKI Press Svodka, October 16, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:26881/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “V Bishkeke neizvestnymi sovershen nalet na otel’,” AKI Press Svodka, November 3, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:28321/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “Stolichnaya militsiya zaderzhala chertyokh parneĭ za razboĭnoe napadenie na grazhdan Kitaya,” AKI Press Svodka, December 22, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:32781/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “Tomokchanina obvinyayutv v vooruzhennom napadenii na prodavshchitsu,” AKI Press Svodka, December 25, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:33141/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “V Bishkeke troe parneĭ, svyazav skotchem podrostka i ugrozhaya nozhom, zavladeli 178 tys. somov,” AKI Press Svodka, December 28, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:33451/, (accessed June 27, 2013); “Za razboĭnyĭ nalet na otdelenie «Bishkekskogo pochtamta» zaderzhany troe,” AKI Press Svodka, December 30, 2009, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:33611/, (accessed June 27, 2013).

[33] Natsional’nyĭ Statisticheskiĭ Komitet Kyrgyzskoĭ Respubliki, “Publikatskii, Sotsial’nye tendentsii Kyrgyzskoĭ Respubliki,”; For reports on crimes committed with a weapon in Kyrgyzstan in 2009, see: “Zhiteli Bishkeka otbilis’ ot vooruzhennykh prestupnikov,” AKI Press Svodka, February 1, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:35931/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “V Naryne soversheno razboĭnoe napadenie na AZS,” AKI Press Svodka, February 1, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:35941/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “V Bishkeke soversheny dva razboĭnykh napadeniya na magaziny «Narodnyĭ»,” AKI Press Svodka, February 5, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:36761/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “Molodoĭ paren’ zastrelilsya, igraya pistoletom,” AKI Press Svodka, February 26, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:39341/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “V Issyk-Kul’skoĭ oblasti zaderzhany brakon’ery, nezakonno okhotivshiesya na dich’,” AKI Press Svodka, March 9, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:40671/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “Dvoe sotrudnikov GSNB v Chon-Alae izbili mestnykh zhiteleĭ i urgozhali oruzhiem militsii,” AKI Press Svodka, March 26, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:42661/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “M. Karasartova rasstrelyali iz chyornogo «Mersedesa»,” AKI Press Svodka, April 13, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:44181/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “V Zhalalabade gruppa vooruzhennykh lits neskol’ko chasov uderzhivala rabotnikov kafe,” AKI Press Svodka, April 26, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:45521/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “Zhitel’ Sokuluka, ugrozhaya oruzhiem, treboval prodolzheniya banketa v kafe,” AKI Press Svodka, May 3, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:46291/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “Zaderzhan chlen OPG, s oruzhiem iskavshiĭ rukovoditeleĭ Pervomaĭskogo akimiata,” AKI Press Svodka, May 6, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:46781/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “Chetvero chelovek zaderzhany za razboĭnye napadeniya v Alamedine,” AKI Press Svodka, June 8, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:50161/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “V Bishkeke zaderzhany 5 muzhchin za razboĭ,” AKI Press Svodka, June 19, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:51301/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “V Tokmoke raskryto razboĭnoe napadenie,” AKI Press Svodka, July 9, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:53091/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “V Ak-Suĭskom raĭone kreditor iz ruzh’ya rasstrelyali dom dolzhnik,” AKI Press Svodka, July 15, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:53801/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “Militsioner, ranivshiĭ iz pistoleta zheshchinu, obvinen v pokushenii na ubiĭstvo,” AKI Press Svodka, July 21, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:54501/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “U khuligana, strelyavshego v Kyzyl-Kie, iz”yaty dva revol’vera,” AKI Press Svodka, July 23, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:54611/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “V Kante 7 neizvestnykh parneĭ, ugrozhaya oruzhiem khozyainu doma, zavladeli den’gami i zolotymi izdeliyami,” AKI Press Svodka, August 2, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:55391/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “V Kara-Balte raskryty dva razboya,” AKI Press Svodka, August 20, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:57001/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “Militsiya ishchyet neizvestnykh, sovershivshikh raboĭnye napadeniya na zhitelya Kanta i zapravku «Gazprom Neft’ Azii»,” AKI Press Svodka, September 1, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:57991/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “V Chuĭskoĭ oblasti zaderzhan predprinimatel’ za ubiĭstvo «brakon’era»,” AKI Press Svodka, September 20, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:60021/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “V Bishkeke podrostok nechayano vystrelil v sverstnika iz pistolet TT (dobavleno),” AKI Press Svodka, September 23, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:60391/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “Na T.Sarpasheva napali pyatero v maskakh,” AKI Press Svodka, October 1, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:61481/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “V Panfilovskom raĭone dva vooruzhennykh vsadnika v maskakh, izbiv pastukha, ugnali u nego stado korov,”  AKI Press Svodka, October 4, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:61641/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “V Bishkeke soversheno razboĭnoe napadenie na KGUSTA (dopolneno),” AKI Press Svodka, November 22, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:66801/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “V Oshe v dome, gde proizoshla perestrelka, naĭdeny oruzhie i boepripasy,” AKI Press Svodka, December 1, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:67821/, (accessed July 2, 2013); “V Alamedinskom raĭone neizvestnye napali na taksista,” AKI Press Svodka, December 3, 2010, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:68081/, (accessed July 2, 2013).

[34] Kylym Shamy, “Spisok pogibshikh v rezul’tate iyun’skikh sobytiĭ 2010 goda na yuge respubliki,”

[35] “GKNB: Gruppa «dzhikahdistov», podozrevaemaya v rasstrele tryokh militsionerov, sostoite iz 20 chelovek,” AKI Press Svodka, January 5, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:71181/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “Terroristy, napravlyayas’ v Tokmok, mogli rasstrelyat’ eshchyo neskol’ko militsionerov, stoyavshikh na postakh,” AKI Press Svodka, January 6, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:71371/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “V Kyzyl-Kie mestnyĭ zhitel’ zastrelil iz ruzh’ya p’yanogo s armaturoĭ,” AKI Press Svodka, January 21, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:72651/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “Gruppa nesovershennoletnikh bishkekchan, ugrozhaya pistoletom Makarova, sovershala vymogatel’stvo u sverstnikov,” AKI Press Svodka, February 1, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:73751/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “V Bishkeke pri zaderzhanii podozrevvaemykh v razboĭnom napadenii ognestrel’noe ranenie poluchil druzhinnik,” AKI Press Svodka, March 9, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:77101/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “Chetvero zhiteleĭ Kara-Suu zaderzhany za vooruzhennoe napadenie na grazhdan Kitaya, u kotorykh otobrali okolo $ 800 tys.,” AKI Press Svodka, April 15, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:80551/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “V aeroportu «Manas» soversheno razboĭnoe napadenie na taksista,” AKI Press Svodka, April 19, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:80941/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “Troe zhiteleĭ Chuĭskoĭ oblasti i dvoe grazhdan Kazakhstana podozrevayutsya v ubiĭstve «afgantsa»,” AKI Press Svodka, April 27, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:81591/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “V Kara-Suĭskom raĭone zaderzhany podozrevaemye v razboĭnom napadenii na grazhdanina KNR,” AKI Press Svodka, May 20, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:84091/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “Zhurnalista izbili za kassetu, gde vozle «Kyrgyzneftegaza» snyaty vooruzhennye lyudi, soobshchaet gazeta «Azat» AKI Press Svodka, May 23, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:84351/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “Nekotorye podrobnosti intsidenta, gde militsioner vystrelil v posetitleya kafe «Bravo»,” AKI Press Svodka, June 15, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:87881/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “MVD KR: Razboĭnoe napadenie na kassu «Banka Azii» sovershili dvoe neizvestnykh v maskakh,” AKI Press Svodka, June 22, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:88931/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “Likvidirovana prestupnaya gruppa, zanimavshayasya grabezhami i razboyami v Bishkeke i Chuĭskoĭ oblasti,” AKI Press Svodka, July 20, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:91781/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “Zaderzhany dvoe parneĭ, obvinyayemykh v nalete na obmennyĭ punkt, gde ognestrel’noe ranenie poluchil chelovek,” AKI Press Svodka, July 22, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:92031/, (July 29, 2013); “Troe vooruzhennykh neizvestnykh vorvalis’ v stolovuyu Alamedinskogo akimiata, odin zaderzhan,” AKI Press Svodka, September 14, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:96981/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “V Bishkeke pri zaderzhanii grabitel’ poluchil ognestrel’noe ranenie,” AKI Press Svodka, October 5, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:99151/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “Dvoe podsudimykh poluchil pozhiznennye sroki po delu ob ubiĭstve sotrudnika nalogovoĭ sluzhby Nookatskogo raĭona,”, AKI Press Svodka, October 6, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:99291/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “Podrobnosti po osvobozhdeniyu zalozhnikov v Oshe,” AKI Press Svodka, October 10, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:99601/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “Troe parneĭ sovershili razboĭ, pokhitiv u zhiteleĭ Ak-Suu krupnuyu summu deneg i karabin,” AKI Press Svodka, November 15, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:102781/, (accessed July 29, 2013); “Sotrudnik Toktogul’skogo ROVD nanyos 7 nozhesvykh raneniĭ muzhchine, zayavlyayut poterpevshie,” AKI Press Svodka, November 30, 2011, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:104241/, (accessed July 29, 2013).

[36] “V Bishkeke dvoe neizvestnykh s oruzhiem popytalis’ ograbit’ 20-letnego parnya,” AKI Press Svodka, January 25, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:109541/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “Bishkekchanin zaderzhan za strel’bu na stoyanke,” AKI Press Svodka, February 2, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:110631/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “Na kyrgyzsko-tadzhikskoĭ granites pri konflikte s grazhdanskim litsom zastrelen ofitser-pogranichnik,” AKI Press Svodka, February 13, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:111671/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “Vo vremya zaderzhaniya grabiteleĭ ekspeditora operativniki proizveli vystrel v vozdukh,” AKI Press Svodka, February 29, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:113401/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “Zhitel’ Toktogula sovershil razboĭnoe napadenie v dome pozhiloĭ bishkekchanki,”  AKI Press Svodka, March 9, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:113931/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “V Bishkeke zaderzhan zloumyshlennik, prichastnyĭ k ryadu razboĭnykh napadeniĭ na magaziny Chuĭskoĭ oblasti,”  AKI Press Svodka, April 25, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:118691/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “Tokmokskogo operativnika spasla osechka «Revnagana»,”  AKI Press Svodka, May 11, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:120221/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “V Bishkeke sotrudnik GKNB sovershil samoubiĭstvo,”  AKI Press Svodka, May 30, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:122221/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “V Bishkeke muzhchina, ugrozhaya oruzhiem, zavladel den’gami,”  AKI Press Svodka, July 26, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:128001/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “V Zhaĭylskom raĭone ssora skotnika so znakomym zakonchilas’ strel’boĭ,” AKI Press Svodka, July 30, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:128461/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “Inspektory DPS i sotrudniki PPS GUVD, ostanovili bez osnovaniĭ mashinu i ispol’zovali tabel’noe oruzhie, - Genprokuratura,”  AKI Press Svodka, August 14, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:129298/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “Pogranichnik, rasstrelyavshiĭ 5 chelovek, bezhal s oruzhiem,” AKI Press Svodka, August 20, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:129370/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “K razboĭnomu napadeniyu na obmenku na «Dordoe» prichastny chleny organizatsii «Khizb-ut-Takhrir»,” AKI Press Svodka, September 11, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:129645/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “MVD soobshchaet podrobnosti proisshestviya, v rezul’tate kotorogo skonchalis’ tri cheloveka,”  AKI Press Svodka, September 19, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:129737/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “MVD Kyrgyzstana: Likvidirovana vooruzhennaya gruppa, zanimavshayasya krazhami u turistov,”  AKI Press Svodka, November 8, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:130373/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “V Toguz-Torouzskom raĭone parni ranili iz pistoleta nesovershennoletnego,” AKI Press Svodka, December 4, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:130619/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “Vozle Alamedinskogo rynka pri ssore dvukh grupp iz ruzh’ya rasstrelyan 21-letniĭ paren’,”  AKI Press Svodka, December 11, 2012, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:130689/, (accessed July 30, 2013).

[37] “V Bishkeke dvoe tachkistov i byvshiĭ rabotnik «Dordoya», ugrozhaya oruzhiem, ograbili grazhdanina Kitaya v sobstvennoĭ kvartire,”  AKI Press Svodka, January 17, 2013, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:131080/, (accessed July 30, 2013); “V Tokmoke zaderzhany troikh parneĭ, kotorye podozrevayutsya v izbienii I vymogatel’stve $3 tys. U predprinimatelya,” AKI Press Svodka, February 13, 2013, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:131448/, (accessed July 31, 2013); “Ubityĭ pri perestrelke v Bishkeke paren’ prishyol na vstrechu za kompaniyu i otnosheniya k denezhhym voprosam ne imel, - MVD,” AKI Press Svodka, February 28, 2013, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:131606/, (accessed July 31, 2013); “V odnom iz bankov v Naryne okhrannik vystrelil v zhenu, zhenshchina skonchalas’,” AKI Press Svodka, March 20, 2013, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:131856/, (accessed July 31, 2013); “V Zhalal-Abadskoĭ oblasti pogib soldat-srochnik, sluchaĭno vystrelivshiĭ sebe v grud’,” AKI Press Svodka, March 25, 2013, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:131908/, (accessed July 31, 2013); “Ofitsial’noe soobshchenie GUVD Bishkeka otnositel’no intsidenta, proizoshedshego mezhdu sotrudnikami Sverdlovskogo RUVD i AKS GKNB,” AKI Press Svodka, April 13, 2013, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:132166/, (accessed July 31, 2013); “Vyyasnilos’, chto grabitelyami AZS v Bishkeke okazalis’ student KNU i KGAFKiS,” AKI Press Svodka, April 20, 2013, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:132245/, (accessed July 31, 2013); “GUBOP MVD zaderzhal podozrevaemykh v razboĭnom napadenii na ofis chastnoĭ firmy «Real-Stroĭ»,” AKI Press Svodka, May 18, 2013, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:132566/, (accessed July 31, 2013); “V Narynskom raĭone zaderzhan muzhchina, vystrelivshiĭ iz ruzh’ya v avtomashinu,” AKI Press Svodka, May 29, 2013, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:132712/, (accessed July 31, 2013); “V Kara-Suĭskom raĭone zaderzhan chlen OPG, prichastnyĭ k razboĭnomu napadeniyu,” AKI Press Svodka, May 30, 2013, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:132728/, (accessed July 31, 2013); “V Bishkeke neizvestnye v maskakh i s oruzhiem pronikli v chastnyĭ dom i ukrali imushchestvo na 200 tysyach somov,” AKI Press Svodka, July 30, 2013, http://svodka.akipress.org/news:133547/, (accessed July 31, 2013).

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About the Author(s)

Matthew Stein is a research analyst at the Foreign Military Studies Office, at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas.  He was a National Security Education Program (NSEP) Boren Fellow in Kazakhstan from 2008-09.