“The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.”

-- Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, signed in Washington, D.C., April 4, 1949

"Small wars are operations undertaken under executive authority, wherein military force is combined with diplomatic pressure in the internal or external affairs of another state whose government is unstable, inadequate, or unsatisfactory for the preservation of life and of such interests as are determined by the foreign policy of our Nation."

-- Small Wars Manual, 1940

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Based on a request from SOCOM to the Director of the University of Foreign Military and Cultural Studies, the author and his instructor briefed this paper and its ideas to the J39 of SOCOM.

Alex first reported on this issue for The Washington Times.  Here's the rest of her story.

It is important to assess the progress of the PLAAF’s degree of progress toward achieving the capabilities it requires by the early 2030s and this paper intends to do so.

This article examines Islamic State’s decision-making, focusing specifically on its pivots between temporal and ideological priorities.

The role of CA in denied areas is a hotly contested topic among members of the special operations community. Feedback is mixed - in favor and against.

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Continue on for the issue overview and links to each article - from the Combating Terrorism Center.

“Air Force Secretary Deborah Lee James said she had not been briefed on any potential options or an acquisition strategy related to a new CAS aircraft, dubbed A-X.”

Continue on for The White House press release (quite comprehensive) on PPD-41.

“A return to guerrilla warfare in Iraq, while the U.S. and its allies still combat the Islamic State in Syria, would pose one of the first major challenges to the next American president.”

On 22 July the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction published an audit of DoD, State and USAID's over $2.6 billion investment in Afghanistan's ICT sector.