Small Wars Journal

General Petraeus / Ambassador Crocker - Boots on the Ground Assessment

General David Petraeus

Mr. Chairmen, Ranking Members, Members of the Committees, thank you for the opportunity to provide my assessment of the security situation in Iraq and to discuss the recommendations I recently provided to my chain of command for the way forward.

At the outset, I would like to note that this is my testimony. Although I have briefed my assessment and recommendations to my chain of command, I wrote this testimony myself. It has not been cleared by, nor shared with, anyone in the Pentagon, the White House, or Congress.

As a bottom line up front, the military objectives of the surge are, in large measure, being met. In recent months, in the face of tough enemies and the brutal summer heat of Iraq, Coalition and Iraqi Security Forces have achieved progress in the security arena. Though the improvements have been uneven across Iraq, the overall number of security incidents in Iraq has declined in 8 of the past 12 weeks, with the numbers of incidents in the last two weeks at the lowest levels seen since June 2006.

One reason for the decline in incidents is that Coalition and Iraqi forces have dealt significant blows to Al Qaeda-Iraq. Though Al Qaeda and its affiliates in Iraq remain dangerous, we have taken away a number of their sanctuaries and gained the initiative in many areas.

We have also disrupted Shia militia extremists, capturing the head and numerous other leaders of the Iranian-supported Special Groups, along with a senior Lebanese Hezbollah operative supporting Iran's activities in Iraq.

Coalition and Iraqi operations have helped reduce ethno-sectarian violence, as well, bringing down the number of ethno-sectarian deaths substantially in Baghdad and across Iraq since the height of the sectarian violence last December. The number of overall civilian deaths has also declined during this period, although the numbers in each area are still at troubling levels.

Iraqi Security Forces have also continued to grow and to shoulder more of the load, albeit slowly and amid continuing concerns about the sectarian tendencies of some elements in their ranks. In general, however, Iraqi elements have been standing and fighting and sustaining tough losses, and they have taken the lead in operations in many areas.

Additionally, in what may be the most significant development of the past 8 months, the tribal rejection of Al Qaeda that started in Anbar Province and helped produce such significant change there has now spread to a number of other locations as well.

Based on all this and on the further progress we believe we can achieve over the next few months, I believe that we will be able to reduce our forces to the pre-surge level of brigade combat teams by next summer without jeopardizing the security gains that we have fought so hard to achieve.

Beyond that, while noting that the situation in Iraq remains complex, difficult, and sometimes downright frustrating, I also believe that it is possible to achieve our objectives in Iraq over time, though doing so will be neither quick nor easy.

Having provided that summary, I would like to review the nature of the conflict in Iraq, recall the situation before the surge, describe the current situation, and explain the recommendations I have provided to my chain of command for the way ahead in Iraq...

Full Transcript (PDF)

Briefing Slides (PDF)

Ambassador Ryan Crocker

Mr. Chairman, ranking members, members of the committees, thank you for the opportunity to address you today.

I consider it a privilege and an honor to serve in Iraq at a time when so much is at stake for our country and the people of the region, and when so many Americans of the highest caliber in our military and civilian services are doing the same.

I know that a heavy responsibility weighs on my shoulders to provide the country with my best, most honest assessment of the situation in Iraq in its political, economic and diplomatic dimensions and the implications for the United States.

In doing so, I will not minimize the enormity of the challenges faced by Iraqis, nor the complexity of the situation. At the same time, I intend to demonstrate that it is possible for the United States to see its goals realized in Iraq and that Iraqis are capable of tackling and addressing the problems confronting them today.

A secure, stable, Democratic Iraq at peace with its neighbors is, in my view, attainable. The cumulative trajectory of political, economic, and diplomatic developments in Iraq is upwards, although the slope of that line is not steep. This process will not be quick. It will be uneven and punctuated by setbacks, as well as achievements, and it will require substantial U.S. resolve and commitment.

There will be no single moment at which we can claim victory. Any turning point will likely only be recognized in retrospect. This is a sober assessment, but it should not be a disheartening one. I have found it helpful during my time in Iraq to reflect on our own history. At many points in our early years, our survival as a nation was questionable...

Full Transcript (PDF)


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jColes (not verified)

Wed, 09/12/2007 - 12:46am

During more than 30 years as a soldier and Department of the Army Civilian employee I was a member of the teams that helped prepare congressional testimony for several senior Generals Commanding...sometimes the work was drudgery, other times it was an honor to be part of telling important Army stories to the Congress. The team that helped GEN Petraeus prepare his testimony on the progress of operations in Iraq should be very proud of their work and of his presentation to the Congress.

I watched GEN Petraeus' testimony with keen interest and came away very, very impressed. In short, Petraeus set the boundaries for rational debate and decision-making...but then again, his audience was composed of politicians; so who knows what the Congress will do with his report.

Ambassdor Crocker also acquitted himself extremely well during his discussions of challenges and opportunities created the Byzantine, perhaps even arcane, Iraqi political process...His candid assessment of what works, what's not yet working-but might work, and what's not likely to ever work in the Iraqi government was refreshing and genuinely enlightening.

The quality of both the Petraeus and Crocker reports is a testament to the quality of the Americans, allies and Iraqis who support these leaders -- and, no matter what some in Congress might say, the surge and the Iraqi regional leadership's reaction to it is making a bad situation better. Clearly, both the staff principals and their subordinates really are in contact with and aware of the real-world situation in Iraq.

Having leaders such as these men at the helm gives me confidence that the Iraq dilemma is solvable.

All best,

Rob Thornton

Tue, 09/11/2007 - 8:23am

Those in uniform and those who have worn the uniform have good reason to be proud following yesterdays testimony. No this is not about who won on the Hill - Id argue we all did. The reason for pride flows from the leadership example provided by GEN Petraeus in fulfilling his responsibility to our civilian lawmakers.

In my mind this is a great example in civil-military relations where the military officer looks past the current political emotion and provides his best military advice on the situation he or she has been bestowed responsibility. The testimony itself raised important questions from Congress about security issues which they need to consider - some were beyond the scope of the testimony, but at least they are thinking about them and now know who to ask. It speaks to the competence of our military leadership that they can provide insights on what are very complex problems with difficult choices, no easy solutions, and that often have consequences that both unpalatable and not easily visible in terms of causal relationships.

This is an indicator for leaders, because the world is getting more complex and more turbulent, it is going to make for more tough calls. We need to rise to the occasion - over the coming years - leadership will be the means by which we succeed or fail in the problems which confront our national security.

Regards, Rob

Bill Keller (not verified)

Mon, 09/10/2007 - 10:55pm

The General and the Ambassador are buying time for the nation. We have really failed to develop a national security policy past the transformation wreckage the Pentagon and the performance dialectics of the State Department both of which are separated by the vacuum of the White House and the Acting President. We will continue to scream at each other during the next several months until someone is going to realize that after 2008 it will be inherited. The General and the Ambassador have held the first round today.