Byron Ramirez

Dr. Byron Ramirez is a researcher and analyst who specializes in international political and economic affairs.  He completed his PhD in Economics and Political Science at Claremont Graduate University and holds an MA in Economics, a MS in Management, and an MBA.  His areas of research include geopolitics, international affairs, globalization, economic and social development, and illicit economies. His most recent publication is the co-edited work Narco-Submarines Specially Fabricated Vessels Used For Drug Smuggling Purposes. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Foreign Military Studies Office.

Because of their technical features and low profile design characteristics, narco submarines allow drug traffickers to reduce the risk of detection and seizure.

Derived from the location of where the armored vehicles were found, it is believed that they belong to a faction of the Cartel del Golfo. (In Spanish and English)

This is the third and last essay in the series that examines the rising threat of organized criminality and its spillover effects across levels of analysis.

The purpose of this second essay is to develop our analytical framework in more depth and provide a detailed analysis.

Organized criminal groups have expanded their networks and employed technology in novel and startling ways to counteract efforts to detect, disrupt, and capture them.

This essay focuses on a set of highly advanced technological inventions used for transporting and delivering narcotics.