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A Country Study of Communist Terrorism and Islamic Radicalization in Brazil: Implications for Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations in Counter-Guerilla Warfare

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A Country Study of Communist Terrorism and Islamic Radicalization in Brazil: Implications for Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations in Counter-Guerilla Warfare 

Gordon James Knowles [1] [2]

According to the Brazilian census of 2010, there were 35,167 Muslims living in the country, many concentrated in cities of São Paulo and Foz do Iguazu.  Recent Shi'ite Islamic immigrants have gravitated to the Muslim communities in São Paulo, Curitiba, and Foz do Iguazu. To date there are more than thirty-six mosques, Islamic religious centers, and Islamic associations in Brazil.

Another recent trend is the increase of religious conversions to Islam among non-Arab citizens.  A recent Muslim media source estimated that there are close to 10,000 Muslim converts living in Brazil.  During the past 30 years, Islam has become increasingly noticeable in Brazilian society by the building of not only mosques, but also libraries, art centers, Islamic schools, and publishing newspapers.  In fact, the city of Sao Paulo along “State Avenue” one will find the “Muslim Benevolence Society” home to largest Mosque in Brazil (Personal site visit conducted by the author on August 25th, 2013).

Derived from open intelligence sources, various newspaper sources in Brazil note Al Qaeda operatives have been planning attacks, raising money, and recruiting followers in their country.[3]  Brazilians contend the isolated and uninhabited areas in the north of the country enable Al-Qaeda in Brazil (AQB) to train mostly in secret.

One Brazilian contended that a rigid class structure with rampant poverty, widespread government corruption, evangelical Christian cults, make conditions suitable for an extremist religious theology to quickly spread in Brazil (Personal Interview taken in Rio de Janeiro: August 16th, 2013).  One Brazilian described a long and current history of “evangelical” Christian cults present in Brazil.  The cults practice strict religious indoctrination using brainwashing techniques, proclamation of fundamentalist religious rhetoric, and the presentation of radical and distorted biblical interpretations.  The Brazilian articulated the true purpose of "evangelical" religion was primarily focused on the financial enrichment of the Christian cult leader (Personal Interview taken in São Paulo: August 6th, 2013).

In the past and present, several high-profile lieutenants of Al Qaeda such as Khaled Hussein Ali, have been active in Brazil spreading anti-American and Israeli propaganda for years.[4] 

Specifically, the Brazilian police investigation found videos and text messages directed at Al Qaeda followers.  The suspect also created computer generated “spam” e-mail accounts that promoted hatred of Jews and blacks.

Brazil is home to one of the largest Arab populations outside of the Middle East, with most living in São Paulo and in Fóz do Iguaçu, a hotbed of cocaine smuggling in the so-called Tri-border region near Argentina and Paraguay.  The tri-border region is said to have some 12,000 residents of Arab origin, most in the city of Fóz do Iguaçu.  The area already has active weapons trafficking for Brazil’s numerous criminal cartels.[5] One Brazilian felt most of these cartels already possess “state of the art” weapons that easily “outgun” the Brazilian police and military throughout the country, especially in Brazil’s dangerous “favelas” slum areas (Personal Interview taken in Rio de Janeiro: August 13th, 2013).

A specific example of how overwhelmed the police are is easily seen in a Sao Paulo area dubbed “Cracolandia” or “Crack Land.”[6] One Brazilian described an entire district of a population estimated to be in the thousands of crack-cocaine addicts.  A visit to “Cracolandia” of Sao Paulo noted a graffiti ridden lawless haven of drug lords, crack-addicts, and abandoned children who are socially destined to follow the same fate as their parents.  Brazilian officials have formally acknowledged they are dealing with a “crack epidemic” and increased drug related violence.  This is in spite of the fact that small amounts of marijuana for personal use are completely legal in Brazil.

Brazilians interviewed stated the crack social problem is only getting worse.  Brazilian media sources note sustained crack-cocaine addiction is due to the fact that “crack” is cheap and readily available.  Crack-cocaine addiction has also devastated other major cities in the United States from Miami, Florida fronting the Atlantic Ocean to Honolulu, Hawaii centered in the Pacific Ocean.[7] [8] [9] 

In addition to the Brazilian city of Sao Paulo, numerous “Cracolandias” have appeared all over the country within in the last decade to include a “Cracolandia” in Brazil’s most popular tourist destination of Rio de Janeiro.  As early as 2011, President Dilma Rousseff allocated $1.9 billion dollars from Brazil’s federal budget to battle crack-cocaine.  Most of the expenditures were earmarked for drug treatment and education for the estimated 1.5 million crack-addicts in the country.  A comparison to handling the crack-cocaine epidemic to handling Al-Qaeda in Brazil (AQB) takes a simple analysis of sociological intelligence:

“If one thinks the Brazilian Federal Police can suppress extremely dedicated and highly skilled Al-Qaeda operatives trained in advanced terrorism while in the mountains of Afghanistan and now embedded into Brazilian communities, one should think again.”

In addition to rampant crack-addiction and alcoholism, addiction to gambling also enters the picture.  Brazil’s looming, seemingly benign, but highly addictive and extremely illegal gambling problem centers on the country’s numerous “bingo” game parlors.  Similar to the financial losses and Chinese street gang associated “Mahjong” parlors have been noted in America’s numerous “Chinatowns” from New York to Hawaii.[10] Although, the Chinese “Mahjong” game often does provide hours of entertainment, however in reality it plunders and squanders the “life savings” of many immigrant ethnic Chinese.  Problem gambling associated with illegal “bingo games” also plagues many Brazilians.

Islamic Extremists in Brazil

Global intelligence agencies and non-governmental organization (NGOs) watch groups have been concerned for years  that the tri-border region could be a fundraising center for the Islamic extremists groups of Lebanon’s Hezbollah (Arabic: Party of God) and Palestinian Hamas (Arabic: Islamic Resistance Movement).[11] [12] [13]  Both of these groups practice radical Islamic fundamentalism that utilizes measures of terrorist skyjacking, suicide bombing, and the manufacture of deadly improvised explosive devices (IEDs).  However, Brazil has not passed any specific anti-terrorism legislation, does not recognize Hezbollah or Hamas as terrorist groups, and disbanded the Federal Police’s anti-terrorism service in 2009.[14]

Analysts agree that Hezbollah themed “Islamic Resistance in Lebanon” started its infiltration of Latin America in the mid-1980’s, establishing its first major stronghold in the tri-border – a relatively lawless region along the frontiers of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay.[15] From this base deep in the heart of South America, Hezbollah set up illicit enterprises to fund its operations in the Middle East and elsewhere.[16] Current types of criminal activities discussed in the tri-border region by Brazilian sources include money-laundering, counterfeiting brand name clothing and lingerie (Victoria’s Secret), women’s body lotion and facial cream, jewelry (watches), movie DVD piracy and computer programs, and drug trafficking – primarily cocaine.

Brazilian police authorities in São Paulo also detained an Arab national who ran a website whose forum included anti-American rhetoric written in Arabic.  The man is considered a key player in Al Qaeda’s social media propaganda campaign.[17]

In addition to shutting down the extremist website, Brazilian police also seized his computers to determine any relation to terrorist networks.  Brazilian prosecutors described the content of the website as “deplorable” and filled with messages about the hatred of Americans and religious intolerance.[18]

Police officials were frustrated because the suspect had to be released in 21 days because he has a fixed residence in Brazil and in the country legally.  Police officials contend the individual may be charged under Brazilian laws that criminalized the electronic promotion of racial intolerance.[19] When pressed for more information, U.S. officials referred all questions about the matter to Brazilian authorities.

Police officials have levied serious accusations as to how Islamic terrorists have infiltrated the country of Brazil.  The Director of Intelligence for Brazil’s Federal Police, Daniel Lorenz, laid out a sinister scheme of radical Islamic terrorist subversion into Brazil: (1) religious extremists used Brazil as a “stop over” to avoid detection in Latin America’s largest country and the over populated city of Sao Paulo, (2) married prostitutes and adopted their children to secure legal residency in the country, (3) the seductive use of Islamic rhetoric promoting a better life to Brazil’s poor, and (4) once entrenched on Brazil soil, Islamic terrorists began to plan to attack targets abroad.

Another problem expressed during an interview with a Brazilian national from Sao Paulo is a proud denial that no terrorism exists in their country.  Even the Brazilian Legislature does not contemplate the crime of terrorism according former Minister of Justice Taro Genro.  This proud denial of “non-existent” terrorism by the Brazilian government has enabled Al-Qaeda in Brazil (AQB) operatives to spread slowly into many parts of the country – especially the city of Sao Paulo.

For example, one suspected Al-Qaeda member had two houses in Sao Paulo and coordinated a so called “social media battalion” of jihadists.[20] Initially, the social media themes generated from Sao Paulo merely “proselytized” or “preached the goals” of Al-Qaeda. However, the internet social media themes then transformed into a “social media websites” for recruitment, logistics, communication training, and “calls for action” to strike targets.

However, Brazilian police officials express a slight disinterest in the radical Islamic movement in Brazil because they contend Al-Qaeda has no intent to attack their host country.  This lack of concern was derived from the following statement of the Police Chief Daniel Lorenz:

“We have the perception that these foreigners in Brazil are evidently not executing extremist action in this country, but starting recruiting programs, support training, logistics, and reconnaissance for terrorist actions outside the country.  They utilize our country as a peaceful place.  From it, they leave to help these organizations.”

The website "discoveringislam.org" features Internet videos of Brazilians from traditional Catholic faith who have recently converted to Islam.  The trendy online videos show a wide range of convert testimonials, from a young Brazilian girl raised Catholic to former Evangelical pastor, both espousing commitment to their newfound Islamic faith.[21]  Another news media clip highlights how nineteen individuals converted to Islam during Brazil's hosting of the World Cup international soccer tournament.[22]

However, a more radical transformation from a liberal Catholic city to rigid Islamic society in Brazil was expressed by the comments of this 22-year-old Brazilian national about what she observed in Fóz do Iguaçu:

“I didn’t feel like I was in Brazil.  I saw women dressed in strange clothing covered from head to toe.  Many spoke a language I had never heard before in Brazil.  It was as if I was in another country, in a different culture – even the buildings (architecture) were different.  I also felt that I was not welcomed there since I was an Evangelical and told not to discuss Jesus in the Mosque.  I really felt like a foreigner in my own country (Personal Interview taken in Rio de Janeiro: August 14th, 2013).”

It is unknown if the thousands of religious converts to Islam within Brazil occurred from a mere enlightenment of the Islamic religion, a distain of Catholic doctrine, or simply a rejection of Brazilian culture.  However, rapid "conversions" to Islam is a concept often referred to as “radicalization,” which generally lays the foundation for an Islamic extremist theology conducive to terrorist actions.[23]

A debatable “indoctrination” process occurring was explained by one young Brazilian woman as follows:

“I entered the Mosque in Foz de Iguaçu as a tourist, my friends and I were required to put on the traditional Islamic clothing that showed only my face.  At first, I thought it was funny, but now I am not so sure” (Personal Interview taken in Rio de Janeiro: August 14th, 2013).”

Brazil has repeatedly denied terrorist activity within the republic, despite the fact that Hezbollah has major cells operating in the country and even some Al Qaeda operatives.[24]  Although Hezbollah and Al-Qaeda come from different, and hostile, branches of Islam, this is not an obstacle for the two organizations to form alliances of convenience seeking to reach common goals against a “common” adversary, the United States.[25]  The infamous “tri-border” region has traits of organized crime and lawlessness that makes it particularly inviting to generate revenue in order to finance terrorist activities. 

Most Muslims in the Americas are Sunnis, in line with their proportion in the world’s population. In contrast, the Shiites constitute almost half of all the Muslim residents of Foz do Iguaçu, the Brazilian city with the largest Islamic community in the Triple Frontier.[26]  The concern is that willing elements from each, Al-Qaeda and Hezbollah, could temporarily unite for mutual benefit and form a common front in the Americas against the United States, the perceived common enemy.[27]

In comparison, Brazil’s neighboring country of Argentina has already experienced the same trend of Islamic extremists in the 1990s.  Two incidents that highlight the danger of radical Islam in Latin America were the murders of twenty-nine by a suicide-homicide bombing at the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires in 1992 and the killing of ninety-five at a Jewish Community Center bombing in 1994.[28]

The Potential for Marxist-Islamic Terrorism in Brazil

For the social classes of Brazil, a belief that radical social change is only achieved by terrorist violence is a common thread in Brazilian history. Two books that propose radical social change using terrorism are “The Minimanual of the Urban Guerilla”[29] (first published in United States in 1969) and “For the Liberation of Brazil”[30] (first published in France in 1970, but banned within the country shortly after release).  Both works are written by assassinated Brazilian Marxist revolutionary Carlos Marighella (1911-1969) and chapters include writing such as: On Rural Guerrilla Warfare, Guerrilla Tactics and Operations, Executions, Sabotage, and Kidnapping. 

However, Margihella’s works are banned in many countries, never published in Brazilian Portuguese, and rarely, if at all, found in bookstores in Brazil.  His works are excluded because they justify radical forms of terrorism to overthrow authoritarian regimes to impose a communist utopia.  A rationale to kill the oppressive elements of a government is expressed by the following statement:

Carlos Margihella: “It is necessary for every urban guerilla to keep in mind he can only maintain his existence if he is disposed to kill police and those dedicated to repression and expropriate the wealth of the capitalists, landowners, and imperialists.[31]

As one Brazilian explained Marighella redefined terrorism as the intended action for the revolutionary fighter to topple oppressive regimes by violent actions (Personal Interview taken in Rio de Janeiro: August 13th, 2013).

The accusation of “violence” or “terrorism” no longer has the negative meaning it used to have. It has acquired new clothing; a new color. It does not divide, it does not discredit; on the contrary, it represents a center of attraction. Today, to be “violent” or a “terrorist” is a quality that ennobles any honorable person, because it is an act worthy of a revolutionary engaged in armed struggle against the shameful military dictatorship and its atrocities.[32]

Unlike Argentinean communist revolutionary Ernesto “Che” Guevara who proposed guerrilla action in the countryside,[33] Marighella's theories envisioned sparking a bloody Marxist revolution with urban guerrilla warfare.[34]

Marighella viewed the city as the source of rebellion.  Marighella advocated urban guerilla warfare to neutralize and defeat the political institutions in order to create a climate for radical social change.

Inspired by the sociological writings in the Communist Manifesto (1848)[35] and Das Kapital (1867)[36] written by Karl Marx, inspired Marxist Brazilian Carlos Marighella to advocate urban guerilla warfare.  Marighella envisioned collapsing the capitalist exploitation produced by the “bourgeois” (French: The affluent), freeing the enslaved “proletariat” (French: The peasants) and creating a classless socialist economy free of poverty that would be guided by a benevolent communist military elite.[37]

The Marxist inspired writings in the “Mini-manual of the Urban Guerilla” by Carlos Marighella are considered to be the last of the great literature of revolutionary terrorism in the 20th century.[38]

Although assassinated on the streets of Sao Paulo in 1969 by the Brazilian police, his writings in “The Minimanual of the Urban Guerilla” are still highly admired among student revolutionaries in America, Europe and Ireland.  Important terrorist groups that have utilized Marighella’s methods include the Japanese Red Army, Peru's Shining Path, Germany's Red Army Faction, Direct Action of France, the New World Liberation Front and Weather Underground of the United States.[39]

Even though the Brazilian police vendetta was fulfilled against Marighella during the last century, still today remains a small, obscure, unreadable monument marking his assassination site in Sao Paulo (Personal site visit conducted by the author on August 25th, 2013).  However, a noted nemesis of communist rhetoric, United States President John F. Kennedy once stated, “A man may die, nations may rise and fall, but an idea lives on.” True to his word noted a current observation while walking in a tattered neighborhood in downtown Sao Paulo.  Atop a large community building, appeared large words in gold letters before a red background proudly stating, “The Communist Party of Brazil.”

A concern derived from this observation is the existence of the beloved memories of Carlos Marighella and his Marxist revolutionary passion and use of terrorism to liberate Brazil could push Brazilian Islamic coverts into committing terrorist acts in the name of Islam.  Counterterrorism analysts have argued that virtually all significant "Islamic" terrorist groups, from Al-Qaeda to Hezbollah, Abu Sayyef to the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, were created or commanded by "former" communists.[40] 

Further, the most important Taliban leaders such as Abdurrashid Dostum, Shahnawaz Tanai, and Gulbuddin Hikmatyar were all former communists.[41]  The terrorists’ attacks on the Afghani and Pakistani police are specifically taken from the communist revolutionary model put forth in the "The Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla" authored by Brazilian Communist Party member Carlos Marighella.[42]    

Specifically, this research contends that the Al-Qaeda religious extremist theology is a negative social movement in Brazil.  Additional factors such as poverty, discrimination, and government inefficiency will permit radical Islamists to multiply and the Al-Qaeda terroristic theology to become a dangerous social movement in Brazil.  Human terrain analysis and sociological intelligence notes that Al-Qaeda has embedded themselves into benevolent and peaceful Islamic communities of Brazil.  Failure to believe that Al-Qaeda is not active in Brazil is a major social problem and intelligence failure.

End Notes

[1] These research findings were presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association held at the Hilton Chicago in Chicago, Illinois for the regular session panel on Global Islam on August 22nd, 2015.

[2] This research was presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology held at the New Orleans Hilton in New Orleans, Louisiana for the regular session panel on The Changing Character of Global Violence and Justice Strategies on November 16th, 2016.

[3] Coutinho, Leonardo. "A Rede do Terror no Brasil (The Network of Terror in Brazil)." Revista Veja, São Paulo, Brazil, April, 2011, 89-96.

[4] Melamed, Diego. "Al-Qaeda cells active in Brazil, magazine says." Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 2011. www.jta.org.  

[5] Barillas, Martin. "Al-Qaeda Operatives Recruit Members and Plan Attacks in Brazil." thecuttingedgenews.com. 2011.

[6] Bevins, Vincent. "In Brazil's cracolandias, roving hordes of lost souls, The nation is grappling with what officials call a crack epidemic, affecting Brazilians of all ages and confounding government efforts to deal with it." Los Angeles Times (retrieved: http://articles.latimes.com/2012/dec/22/world/la-fg-brazil-crack-20121223/2).

[7] Knowles, Gordon James. "Dealing Crack Cocaine: A View from the Streets of Honolulu." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, July 1, 1996, 1-8.

[8] Knowles, Gordon James. "Deception, Detection, and Evasion: A Tradecraft Analysis of Honolulu, Hawaii’s Street Crack-Cocaine Traffickers." Journal of Criminal Justice 27, no. 5 (September/October 1999): 443-55.

[9] Knowles, Gordon James. "Heroin, Crack, and AIDS: Examining Social Change within Honolulu, Hawaii’s Street Sex Trade." Crime, Law, and Social Change 30, no. 4 (November 1999): 379-397.

[10] Knowles, Gordon James. “Gambling, Drugs, and Sex: New Drug Trends and Addictions in Honolulu, Hawaii.” Sociological Practice 1 no. 1 (March 1999): 45-70.

[11] Harik, Judith P. Hezbollah: the changing face of terrorism. London: I.B. Tauris, 2004.

[12] Melamed, Diego. "Al-Qaeda cells active in Brazil, magazine says." Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 2011. www.jta.org.       

[13] Brice, Arthur. "Iran, Hezbollah mine Latin America for revenue, recruits, analysts say." 2013. Cable News Network (ww.cnn.com).

 [14] Yapp, Robin. "Brazil Latest Base for Islamic Extremists." The Daily Telegraph, 2011. London, England.

[15] Daremblum, Jaime. "Al Qaeda in Brazil?" The Weekly Standard, 2011. www.weeklystandard.com.

[16] Barillas, Martin. "Al-Qaeda Operatives Recruit Members and Plan Attacks in Brazil." 2011. www.thecuttingedgenews.com. 2011.

[17] "Brazil Detains Al-Qaeda Suspect Who Ran Anti-American Web Site." Associated Press, 2009. (www.foxnews.com).

[18] "Brazil Detains Al-Qaeda Suspect Who Ran Anti-American Web Site." Associated Press, 2009. (www.foxnews.com).

[19] "Brazil Detains Al-Qaeda Suspect Who Ran Anti-American Web Site." Associated Press, 2009. (www.foxnews.com).

[20] Yapp, Robin. "Brazil Latest Base for Islamic Extremists." The Daily Telegraph, 2011. London, England.

[21] Discovering Islam. "Brazilian Coverts: Ex-Pastor from Brazil Reverts to Islam, "and "Brazilian Coverts: Brazilian Girl Coverts to Islam."  http://discoveringislam.org.  Retrieved: February 14th, 2018.

[22] Allilou, Aziz. "Brazil: 19 people converted to Islam during World Cup."  July 12th, 2014.  Morroccoworldnews.com. Retrieved February 15th, 2018. 

[23] Crossett, C., and J. Spitaletta. 2010. Radicalization: Relevant Psychological and Sociological Concepts.  Applied Physics Laboratory, John Hopkins University, U.S. Army Asymmetric Warfare Group, 2282 Morrison Street, Suite 5355, Fort Meade, Maryland  20755-5355.

[24] Fleischman, Luis.  2015.  In Latin America, radical Islamic presence flourishes while key countries downplay the threat.  https://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/2015/01/17/in-latin-america-radical-islamic-presence-flourishes-while-key-countries-downplay-the-threat.  Retrieved: February 14th, 2018.

 

[25] Daremblum, Jaime. 2011.  Iran and Latin America.  Security and Foreign Affairs: The Hudson Institute. https://www.hudson.org/content/researchattachments/attachment/877/iran_latin_america_daremblum_jan2011.pdf.  Retrieved: February 14th, 2018.    

 

[26] Daremblum, Jaime. 2011.  Iran and Latin America.  Security and Foreign Affairs: The Hudson Institute. https://www.hudson.org/content/researchattachments/attachment/877/iran_latin_america_daremblum_jan2011.pdf.  Retrieved: February 14th, 2018.   

 

[27] Fowler, Jeffery. 2016. Al-Qaeda, Hezbollah, and Hamas all Active in South America.  Retrieved on February 15th, 2018 at https://inhomelandsecurity.com/al-qaeda-hezbollah-and-hamas-all-active-in-south-america.

[28] Brice, Arthur. "Iran, Hezbollah mine Latin America for revenue, recruits, analysts say." 2013. Cable News Network (ww.cnn.com).

 [29] Marighella, Carlos. The Minimanual of the Urban Guerilla. Montreal, Canada: Abraham Guillen Press, 1969.

[30] Marighella, Carlos. For the Liberation of Brazil. New York, New York: Penguin Books, 1974.

[31] Marighella, Carlos. The Minimanual of the Urban Guerilla. Montreal, Canada: Abraham Guillen Press, 1969:6.  

[32] Marighella, Carlos. The Minimanual of the Urban Guerilla. Montreal, Canada: Abraham Guillen Press, 1969:3. 

[33] Guevara, Ernesto Che. Guerrilla Warfare. New York, New York, Skyhorse Publishing, Inc., 1961. 

[34] White, Jonathan. “Ideological Terrorism.” Chapter 12 in Terrorism and Homeland Security, 5th Edition.  Mason, Ohio, Cengage Learning, 2006. 219.

[35] Mark, Karl, and Engels Friedrich. The Communist Manifesto: Complete Version. Richmond, Australia: Mountain Waters Party Limited, 1848.

[36] Marx, Karl. Das Kapital: Critique of the Political Economy. Chicago, Illinois: Aristaeus Books, 1967.

[37] "Communism’s Western Beach Head - Cuba: Castro’s Brain." Time Magazine, August 8, 1960.

[38] White, Jonathan. “Ideological Terrorism.” Chapter 12 in Terrorism and Homeland Security, 5th Edition.  Mason, Ohio, Cengage Learning, 2006. 218.

[39] White, Jonathan. “Ideological Terrorism.” Chapter 12 in Terrorism and Homeland Security, 5th Edition.  Mason, Ohio, Cengage Learning, 2006. 219-220.

[40] Jasper, William F. 2009. Terrorist Targeting of Police.  Retrieved on February 15th, 2018 at https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/asia/item/9092-terrorist-targeting-of-police.

 

[41] Leitzinger, Antero. 2002. The Roots of Islamic Terrorism.  The Eurasian Politician.  Issue 5: April-September 2002.  http://users.jyu.fi/~aphamala/pe/issue5/roots.htm.

 

[42] Jasper, William F. 2009. Terrorist Targeting of Police.  Retrieved on February 15th, 2018 at https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/asia/item/9092-terrorist-targeting-of-police.

 

 

About the Author(s)

Dr. Gordon James Knowles, Ph.D.; is a thirty-two career Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Officer in the United States Army Reserve holding the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.  He fought against Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) insurgents during Operation Iraqi Freedom from 2005 to 2006.  Today, Al-Qaeda in Iraq is more commonly known as ISIS or the Islamic State of Iraqi and Syria.  While stationed in Iraqi cities of Baghdad and Tikrit, Lieutenant Colonel Knowles served with the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) training division for the Iraqi Army (IA), Iraqi Police Service (IPS) and Department of Border Enforcement (BDE).  He served as a Special Operations Civil Affairs: Public Safety Officer under both the 42nd Infantry Division of the New York National Guard and the 101st Infantry Division of the United States Army.  Dr. Knowles is a lecturer of Administration of Justice and Sociology at the University of Hawaii for Honolulu Community College and lectures, investigates, publishes in the areas of criminology, police science, anti-terrorism and counterinsurgency.  Currently he serves as a Military Police: Civil Affairs - Public Safety Officer assigned to the 303rd Maneuver Enhancement Brigade at Fort Shafter in Honolulu, Hawaii