Nicholas Hargreaves-Heald is a master's candidate at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy and a research intern with the U.S. Naval War College's Center on Irregular Warfare and Armed Groups (CIWAG). He has previously conducted research for and published with the U.S. Army War College's Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute (PKSOI). His work focuses broadly on irregular warfare, non-state armed groups, and the relationships between state and non-state actors. The views expressed in this report are the author's own and do not reflect those of the U.S. Government or the Fletcher School.